An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

AJP Vol 30 No 2, 2021


SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 30, No 2, February, 2021


Journal of Physics


Volume 30                                                               No 2                                                              February 2021


Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 219-238

Wolfgang Kiefer – Multi-Talented German Physicist

Rajinder Singh
Research Group: Physics Education and History of Science.
Physics Department, Institute of Physics. University of Oldenburg. 26111 Oldenburg, Germany

I have written more than 30 books and a number of articles on scientists and politicians. However, I have no experience of writing on a living legend, like Prof Wolfgang Kiefer. Professor Vinod Rastogi, Editor-in-Chief, Asian Journal of Physics, told me that he is planning to organize a special issue of AJP honouring him on the occasion of his 80th birthday on Feb 12, 2021, and invited me to contribute something. I happily agreed, as I know Professor Kiefer for a while, though, only through correspondence, and never had the opportunity to meet him personally.

Wolfgang Kiefer – Multi-Talented German Physicist.pdf
Rajinder Singh


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 239-250

An Interview with Wolfgang Kiefer
(On the occasion of 80th birthday of Wolfgang; Feb 12, 2021)

V K Rastogi
Indian Spectroscopy Society, KC-68,1. Old Kavinagar, Ghaziabad-201 002, India

The effect known as Raman Effect was first demonstrated experimentally on Feb 28, 1928 by Prof Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences, Calcutta (India). After the discovery of Raman Effect in 1928, the researchers all over the world became interested in this new technique which is based on the inelastic scattering of light. In 1929, G Joos, wrote a complete chapter: "The Raman Effect" in German "Encylopaedia of Experimental Physics". In the same year (1929), the importance of the effect in relevance to chemistry was given by C Schäfer and F Matossi in a monograph “Fortschritte der Chemie, Physik und Physikalische Chemie”. In 1931, K W F Kohlrausch published “Der Smekal-Raman-Effekt”, in which he gave 417 references1. For the first time, the term " Raman Effect" was introduced to the scientific literature by one of the Raman's junior colleagues, L A Ramdas through a short note which appeared in the 14th July issue of Nature in 1928. Also for the first time the term "Raman Effect" appeared in Title- Index of Vol 122 of Nature in 1928.

An Interview with Wolfgang Kiefer.pdf
Vinod Rastogi


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 251-257

C V Raman: One of the most brilliant physicists of the 20th century

Anjana Chattopadhyay


Sir C V Raman was an illuminating genius and a devoted scientist, who made towering contributions in the development of science in India. Brief history of his life and legacy has been described here. He worked on different fields such as musical acoustics, light scattering, crystal dynamics and optics. He will be remembered for his brilliant discovery of Raman Effect for which he received the Noble Prize in Physics in 1930. He explained the mystery of blue colour of sea water, optical phenomenon of diamond, gems, opals etc. He created the School of Physics and the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. He founded the Indian Academy of Sciences and started the Indian Journal of Physics.


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  2.   Venkataraman G, Journey into Light: Life and Science of C V Raman, (Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences), 1988, ISBN 818532400X.

  3.   Parameswaran U, C V Raman: A Biography, (New Delhi:Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd), 2011, pp 27-39.

  4.   Raman C V, Unsymmetrical band due to a rectangular aperture, Philos Mag, 12(1906)494-498.

  5.   "Sir Venkata Raman – Biographical". Nobel Prize – Official website. Retrieved 27 October 2020.

  6.   Singh R, C V Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect, Physics in Perspective, 4(2002)399-420.

  7.   Jayaraman A, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman: A Memoir, (Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru),1989.

  8.   Mukherji P, Mukhopadhyay A, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888–1970), History of the Calcutta School of Physical Sciences, ( Springer Singapore), 

        2018, pp-22-76.

  9.   Singh R. The 90th Anniversary of the Raman Effect, Indian J Hist Sci, 53(2018)50-58.

10.   The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 Sir Venkata Raman, Official Nobel prize biography,

11.   Raman C V, On the mechanical theory of the vibrations of bowed strings and of musical instruments of the violin family, with experimental verification of the 

        results-Part I (PDF). Bulletin of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 15(1918)1-158.

12.   Raman C V, Experiments with mechanically-played violins, Proceedings of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 6(1920)19-36.

13.   Raman C V, Sutherland G A, Whispering-Gallery Phenomena at St. Paul's Cathedral, Nature, 108(1921)42;

14.   Raman C V, On whispering galleries (PDF). Bulletin of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 7(1922)159-172.

15.   Jayaraman A, Ramdas A K, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Physics Today, 41(1988)56-64.

16.   Singh R, Riess F, The Nobel Laureate Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS and His Contacts with the British Scientific Community in a Social and 

        Political Context. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 58(2004)47-64.

17.   Ramanathan K R, The Transparency and Color of the Sea, Phys Rev, 25(1925)386-390.

18.   Rayleigh J W S, Colours of Sea and Sky, Nature, 83(1910)48-50.

19.   Raman C V, A new radiation, Indian J Phys, 2(1928)387-398. Book Review vii.

20.   Raman C V, The Colour of the Sea, Nature, 108(1921)367;

21.   Krishnan K S, On the molecular scattering of light in liquids, Philos Mag, 50(1925)697-715.

22.   Mallik D C V, The Raman Effect and Krishnan's Diary. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 54 (2000)67-83.

23.   Chari T K Srinivasa. The illustrious scientists who teamed with C V Raman. Madras Musings, Archive, 22 (22). March 1-15 (2013)..  cv-raman.html; Retrieved 5 Oct, 2020.

24.   Raman C V, Krishnan K S, Magnetic double-refraction in liquids. part I.—benzene and its derivatives, Procd Royal Soc, London, Series A, Containing Papers 

        of a Mathematical and Physical Character, 113(1927)511-519.

25.   Raman C V, Krishnan K S, A new type of secondary radiation, Nature, 121(1928)501-502.

26.   Raman C V, A Change of Wave-length in Light Scattering, Nature, 121(1928)619;

27.   Master B R, C V Raman and Raman Effect. Optics and Photonics News, March (2009), 41-45.https://  Retrieved on 6 November, 2020.

28.   Singh R, C V Raman and the Press, Scientific reporting and image building. Part I-III, (Shaker Publisher, Dueren, Germany, 2019-2020.

29.   Singh R, Riess F, Sir C V Raman and the story of the Nobel prize, Curr Sci, 75(1998)965-971.

30.   C V Raman, (OSA. The Optical Society, Washington, DC, USA);. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2020.

31.   Singh R, 80 Years Ago - the Discovery of the Raman Effect at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India, Indian J Phys


32.   C V Raman: A Pictorial Biography, (Indian Academy of Sciences India), 1988, pp 147-148.

33.   Malhotra I, C V Raman and the Bharat Ratna, (2014), Retrieved 14 November 2020.

34.   Singh R, The Story of C V Raman's resignation from the Fellowship of the Royal Society London, Curr Sci, 83 (2002)1157-1158.

35.   Kendall C, Isabelle M, Bazant-Heggemark F, Hutchings J, Orr L, Babrah J, Baker R. Stone N, Vibrational Spectroscopy: a clinical tool for cancer diagnosis, 

        Analyst, 6(2009)1029-1045.

36.   Indian Academy of Sciences, Prof C V Raman: President from 1934 to 1970. Retrieved 14 

        November 2020.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 259-272

The Best is Yet To Be: Raman Effect - Past, Present and Future

V B Kartha*

The Past

                “-----the study of light-scattering might carry one into the deepest problems of physics and chemistry---“. [1]. These prophetic words, spoken by Sir C.V. Raman, in his Nobel lecture on December 11-1930, are never so true as they are today, more than 90 years after the discovery of the “Raman Effect”. Raman said, “The universality of the phenomenon, the convenience of the experimental technique and the simplicity of the spectra obtained enable the effect to be used as an experimental aid to the solution of a wide range of problems in physics and chemistry.” Raman had already visualized why and how this will happen, when he stated “The frequency differences determined from the spectra, the width and character of the lines appearing in them, and the intensity and state of polarization of the scattered radiations enable us to obtain an insight into the ultimate structure of the scattering substance”. How prophetic he was when he stated “It follows that the new field of spectroscopy has practically unrestricted scope in the study of problems relating to the structure of matter.” !


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        Publishing Company, Amsterdam), 1965.

  2.   (a) Dixit, M N, Prasad N S K, Kartha V B, Laser Raman spectra and free and restricted rotation in phenyl silicates, J Chem Sci, 102(1990)635-641.

        (b) D'Cunha Romola, Kartha V B, Gurnani S, Raman and I.R. studies of the antileprotic drug Dapsone, Spectrochim Acta, A39(1983)331-336.

        (c). Kartha V B, The Rise of the Phoenix- from Sunlight to Lasers, Science Today, 53-56, (Nov. 1978).

  2.   (d) Kartha V B, Leitch L C, Mantsch H H, Infrared and Raman spectra of alkali palmityl sulfates, Canad J Chem, 62(1984)128-132.

  3.   Javier J, An Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy: Introduction and Basic Principles,, Wiley Analytical Science, (2014).

  4.   Jones R R, Hooper D C, Zhang L, Wolverson D, Valev V K, Raman Techniques: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Nanoscale Res Lett, 14(2019)231;  

  5.   Langer J, Aberasturi D Jimenez de, Aizpurua J, Tay L-L, Thomas K G, Tian Z Q, Duyne R P V, Vo-Dinh T, Wang Y, Willets K A, Xu C, Xu H, Xu Y, 

        Yamamoto Y S, Zhao B, Liz-Marzán L M, Present and Future of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, ACS Nano, 14(2020)28-117.

  6.   Yu Y, Xiao T-H, Wu Y, Li W, Zeng Q G, Long Li, Li Z-Y, Roadmap for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Advanced Photonics


  7.   Kneipp K, Kneipp H, Kartha V B, Manoharan R, Deinum G, Itzkan I, Dasari, Feld M S, Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using 

        surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Phys Rev, E 57(1998)R6281;,

  8.   Wickramasinghe H K, Chaigneau M, Yasukuni R, Picard G, Ossikovski R, Billion-Fold Increase in Tip-Enhanced Raman Signal, ACS Nano, 8(2014)3421-


  9.   Ashkin A, Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers, PNAS, 94(1997)4853-4860.

10.   Lu W, Chen X, Wang L, Li H, Fu Y V, Combination of an Artificial Intelligence Approach and Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy for Microbial 

        Identification, Anal Chem, 92(2020)6288-6296, .

11.   Jijo L, Ganesh M, Mithun N, Shamee S, Santhosh C, Optical Trap Combined with Raman Spectroscopy to Probe Red Blood Cell Behaviour in Certain 

        Intravenous Fluids, J Biomed Photonics Eng, 5(2019); doi: 10.18287/JBPE19.05.040302.

12.   Castaño J A G, Boussekey L, Verwaerde J P, Moreau M, Tobón Y A, Enhancing Double-Beam Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy (LTRS) for the 

        Photochemical Study of Individual Airborne Microdroplets, Molecules, 24(2019)3325; .

13.   Nicolson F, Kircher M F, Stone N, Matousek P, Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for biomedical applications, Chem Soc Rev, 50(2021)556-568.

14.   Mosca S, Dey P, Tabish T A, Palombo F, Stone N, Matousek P, Spatially Offset and Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Determination of Depth of 

        Inclusion in Turbid Matrix, Anal Chem, 91(2019)994-9000.

15.   Kiefer J, Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Pharmaceutical Analysis, Am Pharmaceut Rev. (February 12, 2019).

16.   Tuschel D, Exploring Resonance Raman Spectroscopy”, Spectroscopy, 33(2018)12-19.

17.   Wang Z, Li Y, Resonance Raman enhancement optimization in the visible range by selecting different excitation wavelengths, J Biomed Opt, 20(2015) 


18.   Allen A, Waldron A, Ottaway J M, Carter J C, Angel S M, Hyperspectral Raman Imaging Using a Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer with a Microlens 

        Array, Appl Spectrosc, 74(2020)921-931.

19.   Gasser C, Gösch M, Ofner J, Lend B, Stand-off Hyperspectral Raman Imaging and Random Decision Forest Classification: A Potent Duo for the Fast, 

        Remote Identification of Explosives, Anal Chem, 91(2019)7712-7718.

20.   Gasser C, González-Cabrera M, Ayora-Cañada M J, Domínguez-Vidal A, Lendl B, Comparing mapping and direct hyperspectral imaging in stand-off Raman 

        spectroscopy for remote material identification, J Raman Spectrosc, 50(2019)1034-1043.

21.   Coman C, Leopold L F, Raman Mapping: Emerging Applications, in “Raman Spectroscopy and Applications,(Ed. Khan M), Intech Open, 2017.

22.   Dhanada V S, George S D, Kartha V B, Chidangil S, Unnikrishnan V K, Hybrid LIBS-Raman-LIF systems for multi-modal spectroscopic applications: a 

        topical review, Appl Spectrosc Rev, (2020);

23.   Wollweber M, Roth B, Raman Sensing and Its Multimodal Combination with Optoacoustics and OCT for Applications in the Life Sciences, Sensors (Basel), 


24.   Bai X, Oujja M, Sanz M, Lopez M, Dandolo C K, Castillejo M, Detalle Detalle, Integrating LIBS LIF Raman into a single multi-spectroscopic mobile device 

        for in situ cultural heritage analysis, Proc SPIE 11058, Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology VII, (2019)1105818;

25.   Shameem K M M, Chawla A, Mallya M, Barik B K, Unnikrishnan V K, Kartha V B; Chidangil S, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-Raman: An 

        effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi, J Biophotonics, 11(2018), e201700271;

26.   Blacksberg J, Maruyama Y, Choukroun M, Charbon E, Rossman G R, New Microscopic Laser-Coupled spectroscopy Instrument Combining Raman, LIBS, 

        and Fluoroscence for Planetay Surface Mineralgy, 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (2012); The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1659, 


27.   Yakovlev V V, Zhang H F, Noojin G D, Denton M L, Thomas R J, Scully M O, Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging, PNAS, 107(2010)20335-20339.      28.   Farrell A J, González-Jiménez M, Ramakrishnan G, Wynne K, Low-Frequency (Gigahertz to Terahertz) Depolarized Raman Scattering Off n-Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Six-Membered Rings: A Physical Interpretation, J Phys Chem B, 124(2020)7611-7624.

29.   Madzharova F, Heiner Z, Kneipp J, Surface enhanced hyper Raman scattering (SEHRS) and its applications, Chem Soc Rev, 46(2017)3980-3999.

30.   “World health statistics 2020: monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals”. Geneva: World Health Organization; (2020).

31.   Ten threats to global health in 2019”,, (2019).

32.   The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative, Indian Council of Medical Reasearch, Public Health Foundation of India, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2017.

33.   Malini R, Venkatakrishna K, Kurien J, Pai K M, Rao L, Kartha V B, Krishna C M, Discrimination of Normal, Inflammatory, Premalignant and Malignant Oral Tissue: A Raman Spectroscopy Study, Biopolymers, 81(2006)179-193.

34.   Venkatakrishna K, Kurien J, Pai K M, Valiathan M, Kumar N N, Krishna C M, Ullas G, Kartha V B, Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method, Curr Sci, 80(2001)665-669.

35.   Hanlon E B, Manoharan R, Koo T-W, Shafer K E, Motz J T, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer J R, Itzkan I, Dasari R R, . Feld M S, Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy, Phys Med Biol, 45(2000)R1-R59.

36.   Lazaro-Pacheco D, Shaaban A M, Rehman S, Rehman I, Raman spectroscopy of breast cancer, App Spectrosc Rev, 55(2020)439-475.

37.   Aljakouch K, Hilal Z, Daho I, Schuler M, Krauß S D, Yosef H K, Dierks J, Mosig A, Gerwert K, El-Mashtoly S F, Fast and Noninvasive Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering, Anal Chem, 91(2019)13900-13906.

38.   Paraskevaidi M, Ashton K M, Stringfellow H F, Wood N J, Keating P J, Rowbottom A W, Martin-Hirsch P-L, Martin F L, Raman spectroscopic techniques to detect ovarian cancer biomarkers in blood plasma, Talanta, 189(2018)281-288.

39.   Nidheesh V R, Mohapatra A K, Unnikrishnan V K, Sinha R K, Nayak R, Kartha V B, Chidangil S, Breath Analysis Techniques: Current Status with special emphasis on spectroscopic detection, Appl Spectrosc Rev, (2020.); doi.10.1080/05704928.2020.1848857.

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41.   Popp J, Biophotonics Technologies Applied at Point of Care, Photonics Spectra Conference 2021, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jan 19-22, (2021).

42.   Colceriu-Simon I M, Hedesiu M, Toma V, Armencea G, Moldovan A, Știufiuc G, Culic B,Țărmure V, Dinu C, Berindan-Neagoe I, Știufiuc R I, Băciuț M, The Effects of Low-Dose Irradiation on Human Saliva: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Study, Diagnostics, 9(2019)101;

43.   Cordero E, Latka I, Matthäus C, Schie I W, Popp J, In-vivo Raman spectroscopy:from basics to applications, J Biomed Opt, 23(2018)071210;

44.   Kong K, Kendall C, Stone N, Notingher I, Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics — From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 89(2015)121-134.

45.   Jyothi Lakshmi R, Kartha V B, Murali Krishna C M, Solomon JGR, Ullas G, Uma Devi P, Tissue Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of Radiation Damage: Brain Irradiation of Mice, Radiation Research, 157(2002)175-182.

46.   Jyothi Lakshmi R, Alexander M, Kurien J, Mahato K K, Kartha V B, Osteo-radionecrosis (ORN) of the Mandible: A Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study, Appl Spectrosc, 57(2003)1100-1116.

47.   Vidyasagar M S, Maheedhar K, Vadhiraja B M, Fernandes D J, Kartha V B, Krishna C M, Prediction of Radiotherapy Response in Cervix Cancer by Raman Spectroscopy: a Pilot Study, Biopolymers, 89(2008)530-537.

48.   Chen H, Das A, Bi L, Choi N, Moon J I, Wu Y, Park S, Choo J, Recent advances in surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based microdevices for point-of-care diagnosis of viruses and bacteria, Nanoscale, 12(2020)21560-21570.

49.   Jacobi L, Damle V H, Rajeswaran B, Tischler Y R, Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for COVID-19 and other Coronaviruses, Royal Society Open Science: For Review Only, (07-Apr-2020).

50.   Deckert V, Deckert-Gaudig T, Cialla-May D, Popp J, Zell R, Deinhard-Emmer S, Sokolov A V, Yi Z, Scully M O, Laser spectroscopic technique for direct identification of a single virus I: FASTER CARS, PNAS, 117(2020)27820-27824.

51.   Burkhartsmeyer J, Wang Y, Wong K S, Gordon R, Optical Trapping, Sizing, and Probing Acoustic Modes of a Small Virus, Appl Sci, 10(2020)394;

52.   El-Said W A, Cho H-Y, Choi J-W, SERS Application for Analysis of Live Single Cell, Chapter 16, in Nanoplasmonics - Fundamentals and Applications (ed Grégory Barbillon), (Intech Open), 2017.

53.   Pradhan M, Pathak S, Mathur D, Ladiwala U, Optically trapping tumor cells to assess differentiation and prognosis of cancers, Biomed Opt Express, 7(2016)943-948.

54.   Barkur S, Bankapur A, Pradhan M, Chidangil S, Mathur D, Ladiwala U, Probing differentiation in cancer cell lines by single-cell micro-Raman spectroscopy, J Biomed Opt, 20(2015)085001; 

55.   Redding B, Schwab M J and Yong-le Pan Y, Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles, Sensors, 15(2015)19021-19046.

56.   Ralbovsky N M, Egorov V, Moskovets E, Dey P, Dey B K, Lednev I K, Deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics: A feasibility study with cell lines and tissues, Cancer Stud Mol Med Open J, 5(2019)1-10; doi.10.17140/CSMMOJ-5-126

57.   Hamasha K M, Raman Spectroscopy for The Microbiological Characterization and Identification of Medically Relevant Bacteria, Dissertation, Graduate School of Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 2011.

58.   Kiefer K, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Pharmaceutical Analysis, Am Pharmaceceutical Rev, May 5, 2020.

59.   Krishna C M, Kegelaer G, Adt I, Rubin S, Kartha V B, Manfait M, Sockalingum G D, Combined Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic approach for identification of multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer cell lines, Biopolymers, 82 (2006)462-470.

60.   Krishna C M, Kegelaer G, Adt I, Rubin S, Kartha V B, Manfait M, Sockalingum G D, Characterisation of Uterine Sarcoma Cell Lines Exhibiting MDR Phenotype by Vibrational Spectroscopy, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1726(2005)160-167.

61.   Qiu G, Xu X, Ji L, Ma R, Dang Z, Yang H, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to study the biological activity of anticancer agent, Cancer Transl Med, 5(2019)37-41.

62.   Kann B, Offerhaus H L, Windbergs M, Otto C, Raman microscopy for cellular investigations – from single cell imaging to drug carrier uptake visualization, Advanced drug delivery Reviews, 89(2015)71-90.

63.   Sockalingum G D, Charonov S, Beljebbar A, Morjani H, Manfait M, Chourpa I, Raman and SERS spectroscopy for probing drug-target interactions: from in-vitro models to intracellular imaging, Internet J Vibr Spec, [] 3, 5, 3 (1999).

64.   Rajani C, Kincaid J R, Petering D H, A systematic approach toward the analysis of drug-DNA interactions using Raman spectroscopy: the binding of metal-free bleomycins A(2) and B(2) to calf thymus DNA, Biopolymers, 52(1999)110-28.

65.   Tanaka K, Kartha V B, Dasari R R, Feld M, Wang C, Tanaka T, Raman Spectral Studies of Polymer Gels”, Proc. ICORS XV,Vol.1, 360, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York), 1996.

66.   Kartha S B, Kartha V B, Dasari R R, Raman Spectral Studies on the Interaction of PDT Drugs with Model Membranes, Proc ICORS XV, Vol 1, 472, (John Wiley & Sons, New York), 1996.

67.   Nissum M, Jensen P W, Nielsen O F, DNA-Drug Interactions Studied by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using Visible and Near-Infrared Excitation”, In: (Merlin J C, Turrell S, Huvenne J P (eds), Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules, (Springer, Dordrecht), 1995.

68.   Kartha V B, N.d. Patel N D, Venkateswaran S, Laser Raman Spectroscopic Studies on the Interaction of the Drug Dapsone with Model Membranes, J Chem Sci, (Proc Ind Acad Sci), 102(1990)697-703.

69.   Keller M D, Vargis E, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Granja N D M, Wilson R H, Mycek M A, Kelley M C, Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation, J Biomed Opt, 16(2011)077006; doi. 10.1117/1.3600708.

70.   Jermyn M, Mok K, Mercier J, Desroches J, Pichette J, Saint-Arnaud K, Bernst L, Bernstein L, Guiot M-C, Petrecca K, Leblond F, Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans, Sci Transl Med, 7(2015)274ra19; doi.10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa2384 (2015).

71.   Sudheendran N, Qi J, Young E D, Lazar A J, Lev D C, Pollock R E, Larin K V, Shih W-C, Line-scan Raman microscopy complements optical coherence tomography for tumor boundary detection, Laser Phys Lett, 11 (2014) 105602 (6pp). .

72.   Barroso E M L, Development of Raman Spectroscopy Tools for Surgery Guidance in Head & Neck Oncology, Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018; ISBN: 978-94-6299-946-6.

73.   Shameem K M M, Dhanada V S, Harikrishnan S, Kartha V B, Chidangil S, Unnikrishnana V K, Echelle LIBS-Raman system: A versatile tool for mineralogical and archaeological applications, Talanta, 208(2020)120482;

74.   Roman K, Vincent L, Piotr M, Jonathan L, Martin M,Ian S, Greg S, Ed C, Michaela S, Alan S, LiRS combined LIBS, Raman and Fluorescence Astrobiology Payload for potential Europa Lander, EPSC Abstracts, Vol 13, EPSC-DPS2019-1946-1, [Joint Meeting European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) of the Europlanet Society and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS)]. (2019).

75.   Shameem K M M, Dhanada V S, Unnikrishnan V K, A hyphenated echelle LIBS-Raman system for multi-purpose applications, Rev Sci Instruments, 89(2018);

76.   Das N K, Dai Y, Liu P, Hu C, Tong L, Chen X, Smith Z J, Review Raman Plus X: Biomedical Applications of Multimodal Raman Spectroscopy, Sensors, 17(2017)1592;

77.   Bergholt M S, Zheng W, Lin K, Ho K Y, Teh M, Yeoh K G, So J B Y, Huang Z, Combining near-infrared-excited autofluorescence and Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer, Biosens Bioelectron, 26 (1011)4104-4110.

78.   Ferraro P M, Gambaro G, Curhan G C, Taylor E N, Intake of Trace Metals and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones, J Urol, 199(2018)1534-1539.

79.   Gleason K M, Heavy Metals, Chronic Malnutrition and Neurodevelopment Among Children in Rural Bangladesh, Doctoral dissertation, Harvard T H, Chan School of Public Health. 2017

80.   Bharatraj D K, Yathapu S R, Nutrition-pollution interaction: An emerging research area, Ind J Med Res, 148(2018)697-704.

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91.   The Renishaw Virsa Raman Analyser; fibre-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy system with probes for remote analysis, David Reece, Renishaw plc., New 

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          Afternoon Daylight, Appl Spectrosc, 74(2020)233-240.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 273-280


Raman Spectroscopy: Twenty-five years of concept to clinical application
for early diagnosis of pre-cancer in Barrett’s Oesophagus

M S Noor Mohamed1, A Dudgeon1,3, E Upchurch2, O J Old1, A Pavlou (deceased)1, L M Almond3,
G R Lloyd1, 6, M Isabelle1, 7, J Hutchings1, C Kendall1, J Day4, N Stone5 and H Barr1.

1Biophotonics Research Unit, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Great Western Road, Gloucester GL13NN United Kingdom

2Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, United Kingdom.

3Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom

4Bristol Interface Group/Clifton Photonics, University of Bristol , United Kingdom

5Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

6MRC Phenome Centre, Birmingham United Kingdom.

7Bioimaging Group, GSK, Shortstown, England United Kingdom

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Early diagnosis and treatment of all diseases and in particular cancer is important to allow curative treatment. Symptomatic cancer is usually a lethal disease that requires extensive treatment that is enormously challenging for the patient. Over some twenty-five years we have explored the use of Raman to detect molecular changes in precancerous change and cancer of the oesophagus. The aims have been to reduce the subjectivity of histological diagnosis in particular of dysplastic pre invasive cancerous changes in columnar lined (Barrett’s Oesophagus). These changes are often macroscopically invisible and very easily undetectable. Following this we have investigated the development of rapid diagnostic techniques to detect early degeneration in real time without the delays inherent in biopsy and histological analysis. In particular, we have concentrated on the early detection of the macroscopically invisible changes that precede the degeneration to cancer in some patients with Barrett’s Oesophagus. Once these changes are detected the area can we treated using endoscopic techniques and the progression to cancer interrupted without major and life threatening interventions. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vibrational spectroscopy, Raman process, Photoions, Multidimensional spectroscopy


  1.   Fitzgerald R C, Di Pietro M, Ragunath K, Ang Y, Kang J Y, Watson P, British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on the diagnosis and management of 

        Barrett’s oesophagus, Gut, 63(2014)7-42.

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  3.   Vieth M, Ell C, Gossner L, Histological analysis of endoscopic resection specimens from 326 patients with Barrett’s esophagus and early neoplasia, 

        Endoscopy, 36(2004)776-781.

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        Faraday Discuss, 149(2011)279-296.

  6.   Isabelle M, Dorney J, Lewis A, Lloyd G R, Old O, Shepherd N, Rodriguez-Justo M, Barr H, Lau K, Bell I, Ohrel S, Thomas G, Stone N, Kendall C, Multi-

        centre Raman spectral mapping of oesophageal cancer tissue: a study to assess system transferability, Faraday Discuss, 187(2016)87-104.

  7.   Old O J, Fullwood L M, Scott R, Lloyd G R, Almond L M, Shepherd N, Stone N, Barrand H, Kendall C, Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cancer Diagnostics, 

        Analytical Methods, 6(2014)3901-3917.

  8.   Almond L M, Hutchings J, Lloyd G, Wadley M, Shepherd N, Sanders S, Day J, Stevens O, Stone N, Kendall C, Barr H, Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy 

        enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s Oesophagus, GIE, 79(2013)37-45.

  9.   Lloyd G, Almond L M, Stone N, Shepherd N, Sanders S, Hutchings J, Barr H, Kendall C, Utilising non-consensus pathology measurements to improve the 

        diagnosis of oesophageal cancer using a Raman spectroscopic probe. Analyst, 139(2014)381-386.

10.   Upchurch E, Old O J, Lloyd G R, Isabelle M, Kendall C, Shetty G, Pavlou A, Shepherd N, Barr H, Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s Oesophagus: Are there 

         impending optical and spectroscopic solutions, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, 3(2016)61-67.

11.   (a) Reid B J, Levine D S, Longton G, Blount P L, Rabinovitch P S, Predictors of progression to cancer in Barrett’s Esophagus: Baseline histology and flow 

         cytometry identify Low- and High-Risk patient subsets, Am J Gastroenterology, 95(200)1669-1676.

        (b) Kallaway C, Almond L M, Barr H, Wood J, Hutchings J, Kendall C, Stone N, Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer 

         diagnostics, Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic therapy, 10(2013)207-219.

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        Grade Dysplasia and early esophageal Adenocarcinoma: An essential staging procedure with long-term therapeutic benefit, Am J Gastrolenterol


13.   Kallaway C, Almond L M, Barr H, Wood J, Hutchings J, Kendall C, Stone N, Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer 

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16.   Eliot T S, The Four Quartets: ‘Little Gidding’, Faber and Faber, (UK),1948.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 281-301

Immuno-SERS microscopy: From SERS nanotag design and correlative single-particle 

spectroscopy to protein localization on single cells and tissue

Michelle Hechler, Supriya Srivastav and Sebastian Schlücker*
Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE),
University Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


This review summarizes work from the authors’ laboratory on immuno-surface-enhanced Raman scattering (iSERS) microscopy since the demonstration of its proof of concept in 2006. iSERS microscopy is an emerging bioimaging technique for the selective localization of proteins on single cells and tissue. Selectivity for target proteins is achieved by labeling the corresponding antibodies with SERS labels/nanotags, i.e., molecularly functionalized noble metal nanoparticles for spectral identification. Central advantages of iSERS are multiplexing, quantification, minimization of autofluorescence, no/minimal photobleaching and the need for only a single laser excitation wavelength. The performance of SERS labels/nanotags can be studied in correlative single-particle SERS microspectroscopic and electron microscopic experiments. The rational design of optimal SERS labels/nanotags can be supported by computer simulations predicting the optical properties including the SERS signal enhancement. Work on iSERS from the authors’ group over the past 15 years on the selective localization of target proteins, especially in cancer diagnostics, on tissue and single cells is highlighted. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: iSERS microscopy, SERS labels/nanotags, (iSECARS), Bioimaging technique.

Total Refs : 60

Immuno-SERS microscopy: From SERS nanotag design and correlative single- particle spectroscopy to protein localization on single cells and tissue.pdf
Michelle Hechler, Supriya Srivastav and Sebastian Schlücker


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 303-318

Vibrational dynamics via multidimensional electronic spectroscopy

Tobias Brixner

Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg,

Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly performed using infrared radiation for direct transitions between vibrational states or using visible radiation in a Raman process. As an alternative to narrowband lasers, broadband femtosecond pulses can be employed to excite vibrational wave packets whose temporal oscillations contain analogous information. In this review article, it is shown that coherent multidimensional electronic spectroscopy provides a generalization of this idea, such that vibrational information can be retrieved together with ultrafast dynamics and correlations between various electronically excited states. In particular, fluorescence-detected coherent two- and three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is discussed. This can be realized in a single-beam geometry with shot-to-shot pulse shaping that allows for fast data acquisition and simultaneous measurement of 15 (or more) different four- and six-wave-mixing spectra. These provide information on higher electronically excited states, vibrational dynamics, and exciton transport, for example in supramolecular systems. Generalizations of this idea offer additional spatial resolution on a µm length scale in an optical microscope or even down to the few nm length scale using photoemission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the concept of signal detection was transferred to molecular beams and photoions. A topic of current interest is retrieving the full nonlinear tensor via polarization-shaped laser pulses. In general, multidimensional spectroscopy is a powerful strategy to systematically map out the response of a quantum system for increasing orders of nonlinearity in light–matter interaction. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vibrational spectroscopy, Raman process, Photoions, Multidimensional spectroscopy  

Total Refs: 119

Vibrational dynamics via multidimensional electronic spectroscopy.pdf
Tobias Brixner


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 321-335


Determination of accurate absolute Raman cross-sections of

benzene and cyclohexane in the gas phase

Ankit Raj1, Henryk A Witek1,2, and Hiro-o Hamaguchi1,2

1Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan

2Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Absolute Raman cross-section of a Raman transition governs the strength of its observed intensity. The knowledge of this property is crucial in understanding the nature of the Raman tensor and for direct quantitative applications of the Raman intensities. In this study, we determine the absolute differential Raman cross-sections of benzene and cyclohexane: two molecules of fundamental importance, used routinely in studies pertinent to Raman cross-sections. In our experiments, over 15 sets of pressure dependent Raman spectra were acquired on an intensity calibrated Raman spectrometer. The contribution of air, as an impurity, in the pressure readings was quantified. We used pure rotational Raman bands of molecular hydrogen, with known accurate Raman cross-sections as the intensity standards. The Raman cross-sections of the ring breathing mode in benzene (ν2, 992.3 cm–1) and cyclohexane (ν5, 801.3 cm–1) were determined in the gas phase, with uncertainty of 2.7 and 3.5%, respectively. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Absolute Raman cross-section, Differential Raman cross-section, Raman intensities, Polarizability, Raman spectroscopy.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 337-345

Effects of charge and alkyl chain configuration on hydrophobic hydration: A temperature-dependent Raman study

Subhadip Roy and Jahur Alam Mondal*

Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085, India

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Hydrophobic hydration is central to macromolecular organization pertaining to chemistry, biology, and applied fields. A delicate balance of hydrophobe-water and water-water interactions dictates the water structure around the hydrophobe. Depending on the size of the hydrophobe, water adopts either tetrahedral or broken hydrogen-bonded structures at the hydrophobic surface. Here, we have investigated the structure of water in the vicinity of molecular hydrophobes that differ from each other either by net charge or by alkyl chain configuration. We have applied Raman difference spectroscopy combined with simultaneous curve fitting analysis (RD-SCF) at variable temperature, which provided the water spectrum (OH stretch) pertaining the hydration shell of the solute at different solution temperatures. Our results show that one-unit positive charge on the hydrophobic group (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol vs. trimethylamine N-oxide) does not affect the tetrahedral structure of water in the hydrophobic hydration shell. On the other hand, the change in alkyl chain configuration from tert-butyl to n-butyl group destabilizes the tetrahedral water structure. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, hydrophobic hydration, tetrahedral structure, dangling OH


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  6.   Roy S, Biswas B, Ghosh N, Singh P C, Mondal J A, Hydrophobic hydration of fluoroalkyl (C-F) ss Distinctly different from that of its hydrogenated 

        counterpart (C-H) as observed by Raman difference with simultaneous curve fitting Analysis. J Phys Chem B, 123(2019)27012-27019.

  7.   Robalo J R, Streacker L M, Mendes de Oliveira D, Imhof P, Ben-Amotz D, Vila Verde A, Hydrophobic but water-friendly: favorable water–perfluoromethyl 

        interactions promote hydration shell defects, J Am Chem Soc, 141(2019) 15856-15868.

  8.   Roy S, Biswas B, Ghosh N, Singh P C, Mondal J A, Hydrophobic hydration of fluoroalkyl (C–F) is distinctly different from that of its hydrogenated 

        counterpart (C–H), as observed by Raman difference with simultaneous curve fitting analysis, J Phys Chem C, 123(2019)27012-27019.

  9.   Patra A, Roy S, Saha S, Palit D K, Mondal J A, Observation of extremely weakly interacting OH (~3600 cm–1) in the vicinity of high charge density metal 

        ions (Mz+; Z = 1, 2, 3): A Structural Heterogeneity in the Extended Hydration Shell. J Phys Chem C, 124(2020)3028-3036.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 347-352

Spectroscopic investigation about the influence of charge of cation on the
interaction of zwitterionic liposomes with minor groove of DNA

Tonima Nandy, and Prashant Chandra Singh*

School of Chemical Sciences

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Sciences, Jadavpur, Kolkata- 700 032, India

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied to study the influence of cations (Na+, Mg2+ and La3+) of various charges on the interaction of zwitterionic liposome with the minor groove of DNA. It has been found that DPPC does not interact with the minor groove of DNA in the presence of Na+. However, the interaction of DPPC is enhanced with the minor groove of DNA in the presence of Mg2+ and La3+ and the effect is more profound in the case of La3+. This study depicts that ionic charges can modulate the interaction of DPPC liposome with DNA minor groove which will be helpful in designing the drug delivery system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lipid, DNA, Minor Groove, Simulation, Charge.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 381-404

Comparison of molecular structure, Hirshfeld surface, vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical property of 

3-chloro- 4-fluroaniline and 2-iodoaniline with p-iodoaniline and p-bromoaniline 

on the basis of density functional theory

Nimmy L John and Sunila Abraham

Post Graduate & Research Department of Physics, Research Centre of University of Kerala, 

Christian College, Chengannur- 689 122 , India

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


Density functional theoretical computations were performed to obtain structural geometry, Hirshfeld surface, vibrational spectra and NLO property of 3-chloro-4-fluroaniline and 2-iodoaniline and results are compared with p-iodoaniline and p-bromoaniline. Hirshfeld surface analysis represented in the 2D fingerprint plot shows the presence of strong and weak intermolecular interactions within the dimer molecules. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap 4.6926 eV in 2-IA and 4.9377 eV in 3C4FA is an evidence for intra-molecular charge transfer interactions (π → π* as well as n → π*) within the molecules enhancing NLO activity. FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra of the compounds are simulated and compared with the corresponding experimental spectra. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: FT-Raman, FT-IR, Hirshfeld surface, Hyper polarizability, Nonlinear optical activity


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 405-411

Improved color properties of light emitting diodes with red phosphors and quantum dots

Jun Yeong Kim1, Hye-Rin Kim1, Yong Jin Lee1, In Sung Choi1, Jung-Gyun Lee1, Jae-Hyeon Ko1, Yongduk Kim2, Taehee Park3, and Young Wook Ko3

1School of Nano Convergence Technology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252, Korea

2Cheorwon Plasma Research Institute, Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, 24062, Korea

3GLVISION Co, Ltd., Geumgang-ro, Seo-myeon, Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, 24062, Korea

This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday


This paper presents the effect of red color-conversion materials on the emitting spectrum of typical light emitting diodes (LEDs) for general lighting applications. Conventional LEDs consist of blue LED chips and yellow phosphors lacking deep red in their emitting spectra. Addition of red phosphors or red quantum dots may improve the color-rendering properties of white LEDs. Either the K2SiF6:Mn4+(KSF) red phosphor or red CdSe/ZnS quantum dot was included in the white LED made by using blue LEDs and YAG(Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) green phosphors. Inclusion of red emitting materials enhanced the color rendering index(CRI) significantly, especially the R9 index associated with the strong red. In addition, it was found that the improved white LEDs could be used to enhance the color gamut of liquid crystal displays. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Light emitting diode, Phosphor, Quantum dot, Color rendering index, Color gamut


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Improved color properties of light emitting diodes with red phosphors and quantum dots.pdf
Jae-Hyeon Ko and et al


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                                            Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, i-iii

Book Review
C V Raman and the Press: Scientific Reporting and Image Building  

(Part III: The Raman Research Institute Period)
Author: Dr. Rajinder Singh, University of Oldenburg, Germany.
Publishers: Shaker Publisher, Dueren, Germany,
Year of Publication 2020,
Pages XIV + 119 .
Price, Digital: 5,47 Euro, Paperback: 21,90 Euro.
ISBN: -- 978-3-8440-7520-5.
    The present book is the third and the last part of the trilogy entitled “C V Raman and the Press: Science Reporting and Image Building.” It chronicled Raman’s last phase of service career at the Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bangalore during 1948-1970. The first and the second parts of  the sequel profiled his life in Calcutta (1917-1933) and Bangalore(1933-1948).
book_review_C V Raman and the Press: Scientific Reporting and Image Building.pdf
Dr Anjana Chattopadhyay



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