An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal



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Vol 29, Nos 3 & 4, March-April, 2020


Journal of Physics


Volume 29                                                             Nos 3 & 4                                                         March-April 2020


A Special Issue Dedicated
Prof P K Gupta

Guest Edited By : Anindya Dutta

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

Prof P K Gupta

Prof P K Gupta is an eminent scientist in the field of laser physics, with special emphasis on biomedical application of lasers. Having obtained M Sc in Physics from Lucknow University, Prof. Gupta joined BARC training school in 1973. He obtained Ph D from Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, in 1981, with support from a Commonwealth Scholarship. While in BARC, he worked extensively on generation of coherent -infrared radiation using non-linear optical mixing and optically pumped molecular gas lasers and received the N S Satyamurthy memorial award of Indian Physics Association for this work. The watershed moment in his career came when he decided to relocate to the newly formed Center for Advanced Technology in Indore, India and took up the challenge of treading into the unfamiliar territory of biomedical applications of lasers in general and development of laser based methods for diagnosis and cure of cancer, in particular, in 1990. The lab nucleated and nurtured by him for these activities grew into Biomedical Applications Section and Instrumentation Division (LBAID). Apart from LBAID Dr Gupta also headed the Laser Materials and Devices Division and retired as a Distinguished Scientist and Acting Director of Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, RRCAT, as the institute is now called. Under Prof Gupta’s leadership, Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy-based instruments for early detection of cancer have been fabricated and tested in real clinical setup. Prof Gupta’s group has also worked in diverse areas of Optical Coherence Tomography, optical tweezers, time resolved fluorescence, SNOM, photodynamic therapy, optics of turbid media etc. With him at the helm, RRCAT has evolved into a most prominent center for research and development in biomedical applications of lasers. More than 350 publications have come in the process. Prof Gupta’s contribution has been recognized in the form of fellowship of National Academy of Sciences India (NASI), Indian Academy of Science (IAS), Optical Society of America (OSA), Homi Bhabha Science and Technology Award and Group Achievement Awards of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and many more accolades. After retirement from RRCAT, Prof Gupta has been actively involved in teaching, first in IISER Bhopal and then in IIT Delhi.

Anindya Dutta
Guest Editor
Oct 1, 2019

About Guest Editor

Prof Anindya Datta

Prof Anindya Datta obtained his Ph D in 1994 from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, under the guidance of Prof Kankan Bhattacharyya in Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow in Iowa State University and Visiting Scientist in Raja Ramanna Center of Advanced Technology, Indore, before joining Department of Chemistry, IIT Bombay, as an Assistant Professor in 2002. Presently, he is Professor and Head of the Department, Chemistry, IIT Bombay. His research interest in ultrafast dynamics in chemical systems, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. He has received Bronze Medal from Chemical Research Society of India and is a Fellow of National Academy of Sciences, India.

N Ghosh
Vinod Rastogi
Oct 2, 2019


“LIFE” WITH PHOTONS: Universal Health Care.

As of March 2020, the estimated world population stands at >7.775 billion [1]. Of this, the 35 OECD (Organization of Economic Development and Cooperation) “developed” countries all together have a total ~1.291 billion (16.6 % of total), more than 80% of which live in urban areas, with only about 6% of the remaining, in remote areas [2]. The rest of more than 6.4 billion people in the world are mostly in the developing countries. Of these, India alone accounts for 1.38 billion (17.7%), only ~32% of them in urban areas, 68% in rural areas [1].
An idea of the humongous disparity in human development between the two groups- OECD and the Rest of the world- can be seen in the “Human Development Index-HDI-” [3]. All the OECD countries belong to the “Very High HDI” group (HDI > 0.8, except Mexico & Turkey 0.77 & 0.79, respectively) while the “Developing and Underdeveloped” countries (including India) all have medium or low HDI (< 0.7). India, 129th in a list of 189, has an HDI = 0.65 only. One of the important parameters, perhaps the most important, defining HDI is “Access to quality health” [3]. The difference at birth, in life expectancy between low and very high human development countries, is 19 years; more than a quarter of a lifespan! Lost just because of your place of birth, a choice not made by you! Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family--” (
One of the great anomalies in health-care services in countries like India is the fact that, the small fraction of urban population consisting mostly of employees of Public and Private Sector enterprises, are given complete, almost free, health care by their employers, the Government and Industries. In other words, the health-care financial burden on the country at present is mostly due to health care given to the few million Public and Private Sector regular employees who can afford it even otherwise, while people at the lower end of economic and social status, without any regular employment, who need it most and who cannot afford it, are very poorly served. This highly biased distribution of health-care services, combined with the huge disparity in income between urban and rural populations, have led to a situation in which routine health care has become almost unavailable and unaffordable for the bulk of the country’s population.
Though a host of illnesses contribute to the health-care burden, it is well recognized that a major part of it is due to the “killer” diseases which may require prolonged therapies (because they are detected at advanced stages), and costly medicines, and which also cause considerable loss of man-power, even before detection, because of physical and mental incapacities inflicted on the victims by the diseases even under dormant/indolent conditions. It is also well-known that the “Killer” diseases, both non-communicable (Cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancer, diabetes, child malnutrition), and communicable (TB, Malaria, Diarrhoea), are all amenable to successful therapy if detected in earlier stages. Cost-effective methods for screening and early detection of these diseases or their causative factors, which can be made easily available for universal applications, can obviously contribute to a considerable extent to reduction of the health-care burden.
For the 70% of the rural population in developing countries like India, regular screening facilities, available only at multi-speciality hospitals in big towns and cities, are almost always unavailable and un-affordable, not only because of their high cost, but also because of the difficulties for the subjects to leave their home/work-place, for repeated screening. In addition to this, most of the rural poor are unaware of the need for regular screening. Even those who are aware, are highly reluctant to undergo the current personally invasive screening programs, like mammography, Trans-Vaginal Sonography, colposcopy, sigmoidoscopy etc., for screening and early detection of diseases like cancers of breast, ovarian, cervical, and colo-rectal, which constitute some of the major killers. Similar situations arise in screening for coronary diseases, since methods like cardiac CT, Coronary CT Angiography (CTA), Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI), etc., are not easily accessible for the rural population. For diagnosis of pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions, currently a few markers like HbA1c and glucose are available, but not affordable for regular screening for the rural poor.
The outcome of such deficiencies is a humongous indirect health-care burden on the country in terms of manpower, economy, societal well-being, and human welfare index. In an analysis of global burden of disease study [4], out of 188 countries worldwide, India was ranked as 143rd in health-related sustainable development goals Index.
Since the urban/upper class is readily available for regular screening, even if we can minimize their requirement through advanced technology, we can then divert some of the corresponding financial gains to the rural population of self- or poorly- employed daily wagers, farmers,etc., providing better universal health care.
In general, life expectancy has increased almost two-fold even in the under-developed countries [1,5] and in many of the diseases mentioned above this has lead to serious concerns about health-care. The best method to reduce the health-care burden is “Early Diagnosis”; that is, detect, locate, evaluate, and understand the disease process down to the cellular/molecular level.
The solution for the problem is thus, provide Nation-wide access, on a Point-of-Care (POC)/Location basis through small hospitals, health-care centers, and other public avenues, cost-effective, non- or minimally- invasive screening technology,. That is, accessibility and affordability has to be ensured, awareness has to be created and reluctance for regular screening has to be eliminated.
In many disease conditions, especially in the killer diseases mentioned above, the progression of the disease from the early stage of “Induction” to the final stages of catastrophic conditions is controlled by several bio-molecular processes, which in turn change the bio-molecular scenario in the living systems, including changes in usually present molecular species, production of entire arrays of new bio-molecular species not usually observed in normal state etc. It is to be emphasized that the structures and functions of such “Marker” molecules will also vary during the successive stages of induction, progression, regression or recurrence of the disease, allowing staging of the disease and resultant better therapy modes, if detected.
It follows that the best method for Screening, Early detection, Staging, Therapy- Planning etc. is thus detection of the bio-molecular markers as early as possible, that is, as soon as they start appearing. The markers include, Transcription factors, DNA Re-modelling Enzymes, RNA Binding Proteins, Cellular Receptors and Associated Proteins, Enzymes etc. These markers can be detected not only at the origin of their production( Cells, Tissue sites, and various organs) where the disease starts, but also in other samples since they will enter the blood as soon as they are produced, and will be transported around. The blood (similarly other body fluids like saliva and urine) also thus provides a convenient detection medium since it can be sampled in a minimally invasive way and can be handled and transported easily, by standard procedures. Many of the new molecular marker species will also be transported through blood, from the different locations where they are produced, to the lungs finally. The volatile species among them, called Volatile Organic Compounds-VOCs- thus end up in exhaled breath. Detection of these BREATH markers, Breath Analysis, also provides a powerful, totally non-invasive tool for screening and early detection of diseases like various cancers (which remain clinically silent over long periods), TB, and even viral diseases, and conditions like malnutrition, neurological disorders etc., which usually remain unobserved for long periods until overt symptoms appear.

Foreword_Vol29 Nos 3&4 by V Bhaskaran Kartha.pdf
V Bhaskaran Kartha


Valery V Tuchin

Valery V Tuchin

I met Professor P K Gupta for the first time personally not so long ago at an international meeting in Asia, but I was well acquainted with his brilliant research for much longer time. Prof Gupta is well known for his pioneering research in many relevant areas of biophotonics, including in vivo Raman spectroscopy of tissue neoplasia, polarization fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues, real-time in vivo OCT imaging of brain, depolarization of light in tissues, manipulating cells with optical tweezers, etc. I enjoyed collaborating with Professor Gupta when writing the book “Optical Flow Cytometry: Methods and Diagnosis of Diseases” (WILEY, 2011), where he has an excellent chapter “Optical Tweezers and Cytometry”. I often discuss his outstanding research findings and innovative ideas in my review papers and books.

I hope this special issue of AJP that is dedicated to a creative and productive scientist and great mentor – P K Gupta, will be useful and memorable for the international community of biophotonics.

I also take the opportunity to congratulate Prof Vinod Rastogi my old friend to bring out this special issue to honour Prof Pradeep Gupta, a great scientist of great country. Two months ago, I had an opportunity to visit India for the first time on the invitation of Prof Vinod Rastogi to deliver a Plenary Lecture at VIII ICOPVS2020, Feb 24-29, 2020 at JNCASR, Bangalore, India. I have many pleasant memories of my meeting with many great Indian Scientists like Chandrabhas Narayana, Nirmalya Ghosh, Santhosh Chidangil, and Beer Pal Singh, and many students especially at Physics Department, CCS University, Meerut.

Valery V Tuchin

Tree plantation by Prof Tuchin and others on March 2, 2020

Tree plantation by Prof Tuchin and others on March 2, 2020

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 203-226

Development and application of Monte Carlo model to study light transport in tissue phantoms

Vipul M Patela, Atul Srivastavaa* and Suneet Singhb
aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, IITB, Mumbai- 400 076, India
bDepartment of Energy Science and Engineering, IITB, Mumbai-400 076, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications

In the present work, Monte Carlo ray tracing based statistical model is developed to simulate the radiation transport in biological tissue mimicking phantom. Both Snell’s law and Fresnel’s reflection are used to incorporate the optical interface treatment at the common interface of refractive index discontinuity. The effects of (i) nature of scattering, (ii) absorption and scattering coefficients, (iii) tissue layer thickness (iv) refractive index and (v) laser source on quantities such as reflectance, transmittance and fluence rate distribution are investigated. The anisotropic scattering, considered in the present work, is modelled using the Henyey-Greenstein function and linear anisotropic function. The developed model is further extended to investigate the transient radiation transport in one-dimensional homogeneous participating medium subjected to short-pulse laser irradiation, a phenomenon which holds its importance in the context of photothermal therapy. In order to calculate temporal evolution of temperature in two dimensional biological tissue, the transient Monte Carlo ray tracing model is integrated with the Fourier based heat conduction model. The Monte Carlo based statistical model, developed in the present work, captures reflection and refraction of radiation at the interface where discontinuity in the refractive index exists. The radiation dose distribution is observed to be enhanced with (i) forward-directed nature of the scattering (ii) high absorption coefficient of the tissue (iii) High refractive index of the tissue, and (iv) collimated laser beam source. The radiation dose distribution in multilayered tissue phantom shows peaks in the blood vessels. The time resolved Monte Carlo model, developed in the present work, successfully mimics the effect of various parameters on transient transmittance and reflectance behaviour. The thermal analysis of the two-dimensional tissue phantom, carried out in the present work agrees well with the discrete ordinate method based numerical model. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Photo-thermal Therapy, Bio-heat Transfer; Monte-Carlo, Radiation Heat Transfer.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 229-248

Excited state relaxation dynamics of trans-4-[4-(dimethylamino)–styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DASPI):

Dimethylanilino or methylpyridinium twist?        

Chandralekha Singh1, Brindaban Modak2,  Rajib Ghosh1 and Dipak K Palit1, 3

1Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400 085, India.

2Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400 085, India.

3UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai University, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Excited state dynamics of trans-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DASPI) hasbeen studied using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic technique and quantum chemical calculations using DFT and TDDFT methods. Time evolution of the transient absorption and fluorescence spectra and temporal dynamics recorded in a wide spectral range and in wide varieties of solvents suggest that relaxation of the excited singlet (S1) state is associated with a conformational relaxation process prior to undergoing intersystem crossing to the triplet (T1) state (in nonpolar or less polar solvents) or internal conversion to the ground (S0) state (in polar solvents). TDDFT calculations reveal that the single bond twisting process involving the N,N-dimethylaniline group is barrierless (barrier height is 0.015 ev), but that involving the N-methylpyridinium group is associated with a moderate barrier (0.12 eV), whereas twisting of the N,N-dimethylamine group or the olefinic double bond needs to overcome a large barrier (0.6 and 1.93 eV, respectively). Based on these results, the ultrafast relaxation of the local excited (LE) state has been assigned to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process associated with the barrierless twisting of the N, N-dimethylaniline (donor) group, leading to formation of the TICT state, which is nonfluorescent. In low and moderate polarity solvents, small barrier along the torsional coordinates govern the twisting dynamics leading to LE to TICT relaxation, which is slower than solvation. On the other hand, in polar aprotic solvents, CT relaxation is barrierless and  controlled by solvent relaxation dynamics. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Excited state dynamics, Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, DFT and TDDFT methods


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 249-254

Integrated digital holographic and atomic force microscope for refractive index characterization of microscopic objects

N Cardenas and S K Mohanty

Nanoscope Technologies LLC, 1312 Brown Trail Bedford, TX 76022.

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Refractive index characterization of both living and non-living microscopic objects is of significant interest for variety of biomedical applications. Here, we report use of an integrated Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Digital holographic microscope (DHM) for refractive index mapping. Though DHM yields quantitative phase properties of the sample with high temporal resolution, the phase measurements are inherently dependent on both the refractive index and physical thickness. Integration of DHM and AFM on the same inverted microscope led to realization of a powerful platform for nanoscale mapping of phase and thickness of microscopic samples. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Digital holographic microscopy, Atomic Force Microscope, Refractive index mapping, Surface topography, Nanoscopic imaging.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 255-259

Impulsive Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (ISRS) of nile blue

Shaina Dhamija, Garima Bhutani and Arijit K De*
Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali,
Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Punjab-140 306, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications

We present a method for recording coherent vibrational wavepacket dynamics using Impulsive Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (ISRS). We use this technique to record Raman spectrum for a dye, nile blue, in methanol under resonant excitation. We show how this method can be used to suppress the background signals to get Raman active modes. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Impulsive excitation, Vibrational wavepacket, Fourier transform, Raman spectrum, Resonance enhancement.

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Impulsive Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (ISRS) of nile blue.pdf
Shaina Dhamija, Garima Bhutani and Arijit K De


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 261-272

Raman Theranostics: An overview of Raman applications in therapeutic monitoring

Kshama Pansare1 and C Murali Krishna1,2

1Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC),
Tata Memorial Center (TMC), Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra - 410 210, India

2Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, MH- 400 085, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Cancer, a multigenic and multicellular disease, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and therapeutic resistance further worsens the prognosis. This raises a pressing clinical need for monitoring therapeutic response during treatment. Raman spectroscopy, a rapid, label-free, non-invasive and non-destructive optical vibrational spectroscopy, has been widely employed for cancer detection, intraoperative surgical margin assessment, chemotherapeutic drug monitoring and prediction of radiation response. The molecule specific Raman spectral signature aids in discriminating treated vs. untreated and responders vs. non-responders during chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent times have witnessed a surge in applications of RS, both in vitro and in vivo. The review is an effort to augment awareness of the myriad applications of RS in the field of therapeutic monitoring. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Therapeutic monitoring, Surgical margin, Cancer field effects, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 273-278

Origin of photoluminescence in carbon “Dots”

Avinash Kumar Singh† and Anindya Datta*
Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India 400 076. 

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications 


Using the method of dialysis a differentiation has been made between the photophysical properties of carbon dots and the photoluminescent impurities that are inherently associated with them owing to the various synthetic methodologies developed for the easy and inexpensive synthesis of these comparatively newer class of organic nanoparticles. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Dialysis, Photoluminescence, Photoluminescence lifetime, Carbon dots

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Origin of photoluminescence in carbon “Dots”.pdf
Avinash Kumar Singh and Anindya Datta


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 279-286

Laser assisted cleaning: a comparative study of forward and reverse exposure

Anuja Mathai1,2, Padma Nilaya Jonnalagadda1,3, Bijoy Sugathan1,2,

Goutam Chakraborty1, Kulwant Singh4, V P Mahadevan Pillai2, and Dhruba J Biswas1,3

1Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085, India

2Department of Optoelectronics, Kerala University, Karyavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695 581, India

3Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai-400 094, India

4Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


We report here on a comparative study of laser assisted forward and reverse cleaning techniques. Dye particulates simulated on LiF that is transparent to the incident laser radiation at 532 nm, served as the samples. Melting and partial ablation have been identified as the mechanisms of cleaning for low and high fluencies, respectively. Optical profilometric and microscopic probing of the laser exposed surface revealed a reduction in the height and increase in the base area of the contamination, respectively for both forward and reverse cleaning. The measurement of the total volume of contamination remnant on the exposed surface by employing the sensitive photo absorption technique established beyond doubt the decided advantage of reverse cleaning over forward cleaning. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Laser assisted surface cleaning, Reverse cleaning, Optical profilometry, Photo absorption, Dye particulate contamination.


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11.   Nilaya J P, Kumar A, Raote P, Prasad M B S, Biswas D J, Study of laser assisted decontamination of commonly used clad surfaces, J Laser Appl,


12.   Nilaya J P, Kumar A, Raote P, Biswas D J, Laser-assisted decontamination—A wavelength dependent study, Appl Surf Sci, 254(2008)7377-7380.

13.   Nilaya J P, Prasad M B , Biswas D J, Observation of pitting due to field enhanced surface absorption during laser assisted cleaning of translucent particulates

        off metal surfaces, Appl Surf Sci, 263(2012)25-28.

14.   Datta J, Dasgupta S, Verma R, Chowdhury D P, Bijoy Sugathan, Nilaya J P, Biswas D J, Application of thin layer activation technique to study surface erosion

        of D9 stainless steel during laser ablation process, J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 308(2016)329-334.

15.   Bijoy S, Nilaya J P, Pillai V P M, Biswas D J, Studies on surface pitting during laser assisted removal of translucent ellipsoidal particulates from metallic

        substrates, Optics and Laser in Engg, 91(2017)24-29.

16.   Sugathan B, Nilaya J P, Pillai V P M, Biswas D J, Observation of particle assisted nano-ring, bump, pit structures on semiconductor substrates by dry laser

        exposure, A I P Adv, 8(2018)115110;

17.   Bloise F,  Barone A C, Vicari L, Dry laser cleaning of mechanically thin films, Appl Surf Sci, 238(2004)121-124.           

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19.   Nilaya J P, Biswas D J, Laser-assisted cleaning: Dominant role of surface, Pramana, 75(2010)1087-1097.

Laser assisted cleaning: a comparative study of forward and reverse exposure.pdf
Dhruba J Biswas and et al


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 287-294

Dipolar small molecules at the air-water interface: A heterodyne-detected

vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) study

Subhadip Roy and Jahur A Mondal*

Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400 085, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Air-water interface plays crucial roles in various interface-specific physicochemical processes. It is being increasingly evident that the change of water properties (at the interface) and the preferred orientation of molecules over there are fundamental to such interface-specific reactions. With the advent of nonlinear laser spectroscopy techniques, especially the sum frequency generation, one can detect such interfaces at molecular level precision without using external marker/probe. Here, we used one such surface-specific technique, heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG), to elucidate the effect of small dipolar molecules (e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, propylene carbonate (PC), urea and tetramethyl urea (TMU)) on the interfacial water. Our results reveal that the hydrophobic alkyl part of the solutes preferentially orient away from the aqueous phase (“methyl-up” orientation) and this preferred orientation affects the interfacial water as well. The interfacial water becomes increasingly hydrogen-up orientated (i.e., the water H’s are pointed towards the air) with rising hydrophobicity of the solutes. The H-up orientation of water is due to the hydration of the negative pole of the dipolar molecules that are exposed to the interfacial water. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Sum frequency generation, Heterodynedetection, Air-water interface, DMSO, Propylene carbonate, Urea

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Dipolar small molecules at the air-water interface: A heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) study.pdf
Subhadip Roy and Jahur A Mondal


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 295-312

Fluorescence Mueller matrix: A novel spectroscopic tool for the characterization of complex materials

S Chandel2, S Saha1 and N Ghosh1

1IndianInstitute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata,741246, W.B,India

2LPICM, EcolePolytechnique, Palaiseau,91120 France

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Mueller matrix spectroscopy provides the full polarization response (spectral) of  the interacting medium. Conventionally Mueller matrix spectroscopy has been used mainly in case of elastic scattering. Fluorescence Mueller matrix spectroscopy even though having a long history has been forgotten and researchers haven’t explored it much. This article offers a fleeting overview of the following: theory of fluorescence Mueller matrix, the experimental system and various examples of applications of this unique technique. The presented applications span polymer chemistry, medical diagnosis, supramolecular chemistry etc. This article also highlights the uniqueness and high potential of this technique to be used for various applications.   © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Pre-cancer, Mueller Matrix, Fluorescence, Tissues, Polarized light, Supramolecular structure


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 313-319

Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy for remote sensing of liquid-liquid interface


D Goswami*, D K Das and K Makhal

Department of Chemistry

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur-208016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


We  report  results  establishing that detection  of  the  liquid-liquid  interface  is  possible  through  femtosecond  pump-probe spectroscopy. In particular, we use femtosecond laser pulses to pump and probe the dynamics of infra-red dye molecules in a liquid pair that can form an interface. We demonstrate that an interface formation can be detected from such femtosecond dynamical study of the dye molecule. The importance of obtaining the molecular description on the relation between the dynamics of solute molecules and solute-solvent interactions arises from the fact that the dynamic and static properties of dye molecules are strongly affected by the surrounding solvent molecules. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, Degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy, Liquid-liquid interface, Solute-solvent interactions; Transport across interface.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 321-328

IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy of phenylacetylene-water complex revisited: observation of 

cyclic and π complexes


S I Mondal, A Dey, A Kundu and G N Patwari

Department of Chemistry,

Indian Institute for Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India

 This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


The binary complex between phenylacetylene and water is investigated using 1C-R2PI and IDIR spectroscopic techniques combined with high-level ab initio calculations. A cyclic complex between phenylacetylene and water incorporating Cbz–H∙∙∙O and O–H∙∙∙πac hydrogen bonds was reported earlier. A new phenylacetylene-water complex that incorporates a single O–H∙∙∙πbz hydrogen bond is reported here. Stabilization energy calculated at CCSD(T)/CBS//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory indicates that the new complex is local minima which is about 1.5 kJ mol-1 higher in energy than the earlier observed global minimum. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Double resonance spectroscopy, Mass resolved IR spectroscopy, Ab-initio calculations                                   


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 329-336


Determination of diffusion coefficients of photosensitizers in human oral mucosa

A A Selifonov1.2*, O Yu Aleshkina2, T M Zagorovskaya2, O V Syrova2 and V V Tuchin1,3,4,5

1Department of Optics and Biophotonics, Saratov State University, Saratov 410012, Russia

2Saratov State Medical University, Saratov 410012, Russia

3Laboratory of Laser Diagnostics of Technical and Living Systems,
Institute of Precision Mechanics and Control of the RAS, Saratov 410028, Russia

4Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biophotonics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia

5Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology of the RAS, Moscow 119071, Russia

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics  with  biomedical applications 


This work is devoted to determining the effective diffusion coefficient of methylene blue and pharmaceutical based on acridine dye (rivanol) in the tissue of the human oral mucosa in vitro. Optical diffuse reflection spectroscopy, a modified Bouguer-Lambert-Beer light attenuation law, and the model of free diffusion were used in the study. The effective diffusion coefficients were determined as DMB=1.26 ± 0.46)·10–7 cm2/s for methylene blue and DR=(3.01 ± 0.82)·10–7 cm2/s for rivanol. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Diffusion coefficient, Methylene blue, Acridine dye


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 339-345

Enhancement of the rivanol antibacterial properties under UV irradiation

A A Selifonov1, 2, Yu S Skibina1, O G Shapoval2, N A Mikerov2, D A Zimnyakov3,4 and V V Tuchin1,4,5,6

1Department of Optics and Biophotonics, Saratov State University, Saratov 410012, Russia

2Saratov State Medical University, Saratov 410012, Russia

3Saratov State Technical University, Saratov 410054, Russia

4Laboratory of Laser Diagnostics of Technical and Living Systems,
Institute of Precision Mechanics and Control of the RAS, Saratov 410028, Russia

5Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biophotonics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia

6Laboratory of Femto Medicine, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg 197101, Russia

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


In this work,  studies on antimicrobial activity of rivanol (ethacridine lactate) aqueous solutions of various concentrations under the influence of laser (405 nm) and ultraviolet incoherent radiation on a strain of Staphylococcus aureus FDA 209P (in vitro) were conducted in context of treatment of dental diseases. A significant photosensitizing effect of rivanol was revealed upon irradiation of standard S. aureus FDA 209P strains with an ultraviolet light source with a more than two-fold increase in rivanol concentration at 0.0025% -0.0050% and more than three-fold at a concentration of 0.01% - 0.05%. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Photosensitizing effect, Photodynamic effect, Acridine dyes.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 347-354

Micro-Raman spectroscopy of live cells: Red Blood Cell under externally induced stress

J Lukose1, Mithun N1, G Mohan2, S Shastry2 and S Chidangil1

1Centre of Excellence for Biophotonics,  Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics,
Manipal Academy of Higher Education
,  Manipal-576 104, India

2Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion,  Kasturba Medical College, Manipal,
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576 104
,  India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been a widely used spectroscopic tool for studying tissues, body fluids and live cells e.g. blood components. Raman spectroscopy integrated with optical tweezers can be exploited for carrying out systematic investigations on single live blood cells. The present work deals with probing of stress impact generated by exogenous factors on human live red blood cells using the above technique. The primary focus was to explore the variations in methine deformation and spin marker region of the micro-Raman spectrum to understand the haemoglobin oxygenation state of human red blood cells under various stress factors. This study showed a transition from oxygenated to deoxygenated haemoglobin states in red blood cells under the influence of alcohol, normal saline and heme aggregation in near-infrared radiation. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Optical Trap,RBC, Hemoglobin, Oxygenation


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 355-369

A comparative study of optical and biological properties of Ag nanoparticles using leaves

 of Raphanus sativus, Trigonellafoenum-graecum and roots of Zingiberofficinale

L Jyothia,*, E Ramyab, N Venkateswara Reddyc, T Sreekanthd and D Narayana Raoa,*

aSchool of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad- 500 046, India

bDepartment of Science and Humanities, MLR Institute of Technology, Dundigal, Hyderabad-500 043, India

cDepartment of Physics and Chemistry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Technology, Gandipet, Hyderabad-500 075, India

dDepartment of Physics, JNTUH College of Engineering, Jagtial, Nachupally (Kondagattu), Jagtial Dist, Telangana-505 501, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


The study focuses on the green synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) using various plant extracts. A detailed study on the reduction of silver ions to silver NPs mediated through leaves of Raphanussativus, Trigonellafoenum-graecum and roots of Zingiberofficinale extracts is presented and their luminescence and nonlinear optical properties are compared. Characterization of the synthesized NPs was performed through UV-Vis absorption, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic studies. The absorption, stabilization, particle sizes, shapes and morphology from these studies on the NPs derived from the three extracts are compared in this article. Luminescence enhancement and quenching of lanthanide ion complex was observed and found to be dependent on metal nanostructure concentration, which defines the rate of energy transfer between nanostructures and rare-earth (RE) ions. The nonlinear optical properties of Ag NPs were studied using Z-scan technique with picosecond laser. In order to test the therapeutic applications of these Ag NPs, in vitro cytotoxic effect of the Ag NPs synthesized using Trigonellafoenum-graecum was tested against A549 lung cancer cells and the particles synthesized using Zingiberofficinale was tried against HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Observed results demonstrate that the nanostructures synthesized can be suitable candidates for applications in optics as optical limiters and optical switches and in biology as therapeutic agents for cancer cell lines.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Green synthesis, Metal nanoparticles, Photoluminescence, Nonlinear optical properties, Anticancer activity.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 29 Nos 3 & 4, 2020, 371-376

Physico-chemical characteristics of glauconite Beloozersky deposits


S B Venig, R K Chernova, V G Serzhantov, E I Selifonova*,  and G N Naumova

Saratov State University, 410012, Astrakhanskaya st. 83, Saratov, Russia

This article is dedicated to Prof Pradeep K Gupta for his contributions to optics and photonics with biomedical applications


Glauconite is used as a valuable industrial multi-purpose raw material. In this work, glauconite of the Beloozersky deposit of the Saratov region, Russia was investigated. The surface morphology of glauconite grains and elemental composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy, and the phase composition of glauconite in the Saratov region was determined. The mineralogical composition of glauconite of the Beloozersky deposit is determined on the basis of x-ray phase analysis (XRPA). It was revealed that glauconite of the Saratov region  deposit has good sorption properties with respect to doxycycline and chlorhexidine. Therefore, sorption can be used as a method of immobilization of these biologically active substances to obtain composites as potential enterosorbents . © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Glauconite, Scanning electron microscopy, Sorption, Doxycycline, Chlorhexidine.


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