An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal



SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 29, Nos 10-12, October-December, 2020


Journal of Physics


Volume 29                                                             Nos 10 - 12                                                         October-December, 2020


A Special Issue Dedicated
Prof F T S Yu

Guest Edited By : Prof Kehar Singh

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

Francis T S Yu

Francis T. S. Yu received his B.S.E.E. degree from Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Michigan.
    During the period from 1958 to 1965, he was a teaching fellow, an instructor, and a lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan, and a research associate with the Communication Sciences Laboratory at the same University. From 1966 to 1980 he was on the faculty of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Wayne State University. He was a Visiting Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Michigan from 1978-1979. In 1980 he became a Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at The Pennsylvania State University. He has been a consultant to several industrial and government laboratories. He is an active researcher in the fields of optical signal processing, holography, optics and information theory, and optical computing. He has published over 300 refereed papers in these areas. He is a recipient of the 1983 Faculty Scholar Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Physical Sciences and Engineering, a recipient of the 1984 Outstanding Researcher in the College of Engineering, was named Evan Pugh Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1985 at Penn State, a recipient of the 1993 Premier Research Award from the Penn State Engineering Society, was named Honorary Professor at Nankai University in 1995, the co-recipient of the 1998 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, named Honorary Professor in National Chiao Tung University Taiwan in 2004,  the recipients of the 2004 SPIE Dennis Gabor Award, and the 2017 OSA Emmet N. Leith Medal. Yu is a life-fellow of IEEE and fellow of OSA, SPIE, and PSC. He retired from Penn State University in 2004.
    He is the author and co-author of thirteen books entitled: (1) Introduction to Diffraction, Information Processing and Holography (translated in Russian), (2) Optics and Information Theory, (3) Optical Information Processing (translated in Chinese), (4) White-Light Optical Signal Processing, (5) Principles of Optical Engineering (with I. C. Khoo) (translated in Chinese), (6) Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (with S. Jutamulia) (translated in Chinese and Japanese), (7) Introduction to Optical Engineering (with X. Yang) (translated Korean), (8) Entropy and Information Optics (translated in Chinese) (9) Introduction to Information Optics (with S. Jutamulia and S. Yin) (translated in Chinese), (10) Coherent Photonics (in Russian), (with A. Larkin in Russian), (11) Neural Networks and Education: The Art of Learning, (translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (12) Neural Stickman: The Art of …(translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (13) Origin of Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum Mechanics. And he also has contributed several invited chapters in various monographs and books.    
    He has co-edited four books entitled:
    (1) Optical Storage and Retrieval (with S. Jutamulia),
    (2) Optical Pattern Recognition (with S. Jutamulia),
    (3) Photorefractive Optics (with S. Yin), and
    (4) Fiber Sensors (with S. Yin).
    He has also co-edited two volumes of SPIE Milestone Series; Optical Pattern recognition (with S. Yin) and Coherent Optical Processing (with S. Yin). And Chairs/Editors (with R. Guo and S. Yin) over twenty five volumes of SPIE Proceedings on Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications.
    Yu’s most notably work must be his current book on “Origin of  Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum mechanics” And his article on “What is Wrong with Current Theoretical Physics”.
Currently Prof FTS Yu is  Advisory Editor of Asian J Phys.

FTS Yu (left) and Kehar Singh (right)

FTS Yu (left) and Kehar Singh (right) during 'International Conference on Optics and Opto-electronics' ICOL-1998, IRDE, Dehradun, India

About Guest Editors

Prof Kehar Singh

    Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at  Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at  British Scientific and Industrial Research Association Ealing, Queen’s Univ. Belfast, and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and during the period 1996-1999 served as Head of Physics Deptt. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec.2002. Until June 30, 2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research.
    Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information Security, Singular Optics, and Nanophotonics (Photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, and plasmonics). Prof. Singh is also Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He is a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. Since May 2015, he has been working as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA).
    Prof. Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having crossed the number of 1000 citations.
    Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph.D. theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Prof. Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy key positions in India and abroad.
    Professor Kehar Singh was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honoured him with the ‘OSI Award’. He was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007,and Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi in 2011.Prof.Singh was also honored in 2011, under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
    Prof. Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering,  in addition to being a Distinguished Fellow of the Optical Society of India  and a Fellow of  the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President from 1988 to 1991. He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory  member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010 ), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Engg. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006). Currently he serves as an Associate Editor of Optics Express (2015----todate), Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India, 1974 – to date), Asian J Phys. (1992 – to date). and  Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ). He also served as an editorial board member of the Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.(CSIR, 1986–88).
    Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995.
    Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
    As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ held in Dehradun, India in Dec. 1998, Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics  held in December 2005 at Dehradun, and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar, during the period  Nov.23-26, 2017, and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi during the period Dec.12-15,2018. Prof Singh was also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics  held at IRDE Dehradun during the period Oct.19-22,
    Professor Singh has  edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
    Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the National Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurgaon. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering.College. Kurukshetra and served on the ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities. He also served as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).          

Accepted Manusctipts (In Press)

Measurement of two-point coherence functions of electromagnetic optical fields, and applications of optical coherence

Bhaskar Kanseri and Deepa Joshi


Effect of pixel size and pixel fill-factor of a pixelated device on the  holographically shaped beam

Nagendra Kumar and Bosanta R Boruah

iLens interferometer for probing nanoscale plasma dynamics

Pooja Munjal, VishavdeepVashisht, and Kamal P Singh

Single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform Invited]                                                                              

Muhammad Rafiq Abuturab                                                                                         

Magneto-optics for optical modulation

Abhinav Kala, Vladimir I Belotelov  and Venu Gopal Achanta

Design and analysis of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier  basedall-optical ternary delta-literal circuit and its application in the multi-valued logic system

A Raja, K Mukherjee and J N Roy

On the use of complex derivatives in phase reconstruction problems in optics
Kedar Khare

Coupled waveguide structures with absorbing waveguides for applications  in optical pumping
M R Shenoy and Nithin V

Interferometric interrogation of in-fiber grating sensors
Bhargab Das

Off-axis speckle holography for looking through a barrier: A review

Abhijit Roy, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Maruthi M Brundavanam

Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern denoising algorithm
D Bhatt, R Kulkarni and P K Rastogi

Spectral switching –experimental study to technological solutions
Bharat K Yadav and H C Kandpal

Artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches in quantitative phase microscopy
Vikas Thapa, Ashwini Subhash Galande, Hanu Phani Ram, Renu John

Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review
Praveen Kumar, Naveen K Nishchal and Kehar Singh

Scaling up low resolution noisy images in a multi-aperture imaging system
Suhita Tawade, Suresh Panchal, Rajeev Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 835-852

Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital
angular momentum of optical vortices: A review

Praveen Kumar1, Naveen K Nishchal1 and Kehar Singh2

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna-801 106, India

2Department of Applied Sciences, The NorthCap University, Gurugram- 122 017, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing


Association of optical vortices with the orbital angular momentum of light provides a new understanding of various optical and physical phenomena. For widespread applications of vortex beams in diverse areas, different techniques for their efficient generation and detection have been investigated. Self-referenced interferometric techniques are often encountered to examine the phase singularity of optical vortices through intensity measurements. This paper reviews the recent progress in techniques for topological charge measurement of vortex beams emphasizing the role of self-referenced interferometry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Optical vortices, Vortex beam, Orbital angular momentum, Phase singularity, Interferometry. 

Total Refs : 106

Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review.pdf
Praveen Kumar, Naveen K Nishchal and Kehar Singh


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 891-905

Thin film sensing with terahertz metamaterials

Dibakar Roy Chowdhury1, Parama Pal2, and Bishnu P Pal1

1Department of Physics, Ecole Centrale School of Engineering - Mahindra University, Bahadurpally, Hyderabad-500 043, India

2TCS Research Labs, Bangalore-560 066, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing


Plasmonic metamaterials-based sensing has generated a great deal of interests in recent years because of the relatively simple designs involved with metamaterials combined with strong field confinement attainable at the sub-wavelength scales. Normally high-quality factor resonance-based metamaterials are desirable to realize efficient meta sensors. In this paper, we have reviewed several metamaterials-based interesting schemes to design thin film sensors, in particular. We have also described the benefits and drawbacks of the reported sensing techniques. This review should be helpful to achieve smart designs of terahertz metamaterials-based sensors for exploitation with rich dividends. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Metamaterials, Metasurfaces, Terahertz, Sensing, Thin films. 

Thin film sensing with terahertz metamaterials.pdf
Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Parama Pal and Bishnu P Pal



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