An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

Title Vol 28 Nos 7-9(2019)


SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 28, Nos 7-9, July-September, 2019


Journal of Physics


Volume 28, Nos 7-9, July-September 2019


A special issue on

Optics and Photonics

dedicated to

Eminent Scientist and Scholar Prof Ajoy Ghatak

M N Saha Distinguished Professor of NASI (The National Academy of Sciences, India)

and Formerly Professor of Physics at IIT Delhi
on his 80th birthday Nov 9, 2019

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

Asian Journal of Physics

(A Publication Not for Profit)

Volume 28, Nos 7-9 (2019)



Guest Editorial

About the Guest Editor

About Prof Ajoy Ghatak

Ajoy K Ghatak – a physicist and teacher par excellence

Pankaj Kumar Choudhury                                                                                                                                                                                            471

O-band Bi-doped fibre amplifiers: Present and Future

N K Thipparapu, J K Sahu and David N Payne                                                                                                                                                           475

Light propagation through graded-index fibers: Impact of self-imaging on the nonlinear phenomena

Govind P Agrawal                                                                                                                                                                                                        487

A world without fibre Bragg gratings

Raman Kashyap                                                                                                                                                                                                           499

Twisted light: beams carrying orbital angular momentum

Siddharth Ramachandran                                                                                                                                                                                            509

High-efficiency ring similariton fiber laser with nonlinear spectral compression

A S Abramov, D A Korobko, I O Zolotovskii and A A Sysoliatin                                                                                                                                 517

Blending random lasers and second order nonlinearities in neodymium-doped crystalline powders

Anderson S L Gomes, Lauro J Q Maia, André L Mouraand Cid B de Araújo                                                                                                            529

Towards stable delivery of high energy through background-guided similariton pulses

Piyali Biswas and Somnath Ghosh                                                                                                                                                                              541

Fibre optic sensors - an exemplar on the routes to applications

Brian Culshaw                                                                                                                                                                                                             555

Fibre optic chemical sensors for environmental monitoring using sensitive nano-material coatings

Kasun Prabuddha Dissanayake, Papiya Dhara, Rahul Kumar, Souvik Ghosh, Hien T Nguyen, Tong Sun, and Kenneth T V Grattan                     567

Tapered thin core fiber based highly sensitive twist sensor without temperature Crosstalk

Wenjun Ni, Baocheng Li, Chenlu Wang, Yu Zheng, Ran Xia,Yiyang Luo, Chunyong Yang, Perry Ping Shum                                                           579

Cavity ring-down sensing techniques – A review

S O Silva, M B Marques, J L Santos, P A S Jorge and O Frazão                                                                                                                                589

Manipulation of vector beams produced in optical fiber and an application as strain sensor

Partha Roy Chaudhuri, Saba N Khan and Sudip K Chatterjee                                                                                                                                   605

Optical Tweezers - the invention of which got the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics

Pradeep Kumar Gupta                                                                                                                                                                                                 623

Low-power and high-frequency optogenetic control of spikingcin ultrafast red-shifted Chrimson-expressing neurons

Himanshu Bansal, Neha Gupta and Sukhdev Roy                                                                                                                                                       631

All-dielectric metasurface for complex-amplitude modulation for linearly polarized light

Jangwoon Sung, Gun-Yeal Lee, Jongwoo Hong, Hyunwoo Son, and Byoungho Lee                                                                                                  645

Metasurfaces for magnetic field enhancement

Keshav Samrat Modi, Jasleen Kaur, Satya Pratap Singh, Umesh Tiwari and  Ravindra Kumar Sinha                                                                     655

Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metamaterials

Subhajit Karmakar, Ravendra K Varshney, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury and Bishnu P Pal                                                                                           663

Wavefront aberrations with incomplete Hartmann-Shack sensor data

Abbas Ommani, Natalie Hutchings, Ritambhar Burman, Damber Thapa and Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan                                                         689

Review of optical image encryption schemes based on fractional Hartley transform

Phool Singh, A K Yadav, Sunanda Vashisth and Kehar Singh                                                                                                                                    701

Axial vs radial junction nanowire solar cell

Vidur Raj, Hark Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish                                                                                                                                                  719

Design, characterisation and optimisation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic devices

Weifeng Jiang, Souvik Ghosh and B M A Rahman                                                                                                                                                     749

Are optical quantum information processing experiments possible without beamsplitter?

Kishore Thapliyal and Anirban Pathak                                                                                                                                                                      761

About the Guest Editor
    Bishnu Pal born on Dec 3, 1948 in Shillong India is currently Professor of Physics and Dean of Academics at Mahindra École Centrale Hyderabad, India. He has been Former Chair of Physics Department (2007-2011) and Computer Services Centre at IIT Delhi (2003-2006) India, Member Board of Directors of OSA The Optical Society (Washington, USA, 2009-2011), Fellow of OSA the Optical Society (USA) and SPIE The International Society for Optics and Photonics (USA), Distinguished Honorary Member of Royal Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters (DKNVS, Norway), Senior Member of IEEE (USA) and Distinguished Lecturer of IEEE Photonics Society (2005-2006), Fellow and President of Optical Society of India (2012-2015), Alexander von Humboldt Fellow (1982-83, Germany) and Fulbright Scholar at NIST Boulder CO (1991, USA), PDF and latter Visiting Professor of Royal Norwegian

Bishnu Pal

CSIR (NTNF, Oslo, 1975-77) at Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway, awardee of Esther Hoffman Beller Medal of OSA, The Optical Society (Centenary Year 2016, USA), Invited faculty at the ICO Winter School in Optics held at ICTP 1998, Awardee of Homi  Bhabha award in Applied Physics of UGC (India, 2006), Om Prakash Bhasin award in Electronics and Information Technology (India, 2013), Khosla Research Award of IIT Roorkee (India, 2014) for lifetime contributions in research, Prof Y T Thathachari award for excellence in Physical Sciences (India, 2010) of Brhamara Trust (Mysore), CEOT award of IETE (India, 2010) for his contributions to Optoelectronics Devices, Co-recipient of the Fiber Optics Person of the Year award (1997) established by Lucent Technology in India and Optics award of Optical Society of India (OSI, 2010) for lifetime achievements.

Prof Ajoy Ghatak

                Professor Ajoy Ghatak is an eminent Indian scientist and a teacher per excellence on Optics and Photonics and celebrated former Professor of Physics at IIT Delhi, who is known all over the world for his significant research work on photonics, fiber optics and education in India and for his lucidly written outstanding books on Optics, Lasers, Quantum Mechanics and Relativity. Professor Ghatak has created a legacy of pride for the country and is commended as “one of the most eminent scientists in Optics and Photonics in general of all times in India”. Professor Ghatak was born on November 9, 1939 at Lucknow. He received his B Sc from Agra College, M Sc from Delhi University and Ph D from Cornell University, USA.

Prof Ajoy Ghatak

                After a short stint as a Research Associate at the Brookhaven National Laboratory,  USA, Professor Ghatak joined the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, in 1966, where he was a Professor of Physics from 1974 till his retirement. Professor Ghatak has more  than 170 research papers  to his credit  in various International  journals and more  than 20 books.

                His book on Optics (translated into Chinese and Russian also) is very extensively used all over as a text in undergraduate teaching and in addition one on Fiber Optics, and another on Optical Electronics, and one on Quantum Mechanics are also very widely used for senior UG and PG courses as texts in these subjects.  His research contributions have been recognized through his induction as a Fellow of OSA.The Optical society, SPIE, NASI, OSI, and numerous international and national prestigious awards like SSB award of CSIR, Galileo Galilei award of ICO, Beller medal of OSA, SPIE Educator award and MN Saha award of UGC. As a current M N Saha Chair Professor of NASI he continues to contribute tirelessly and significantly to the progress and dissemination of knowledge in Optics, Photonics, and Quantum Physics. Even at his late-70 age, he can be seen frequently travelling to various colleges, institutions far-and-wide across the country to deliver tutorial level talks and also to disseminate knowledge on contributions made by Indian Scientists to motivate generation X students to take up teaching and research as a profession. He has published several popular science level books on Albert Einstein based on his personal research on Einstein’s monumental and iconic research.  One of Prof Ghatak’s seminal contributions in Guided Wave Optics has been his analysis and work on the physics of leaky modes in optical waveguides in a single-authored paper that had appeared in the Springer journal: Optics and Quantum Electronics in its September 1985 issue. This work eventually led to development of a Matrix method (IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. May 1987) for treating optical waveguides (and also optical fibers), which became an extremely powerful research tool for designing a variety of guided wave components and specialty optical fibers. This method found extensive use by other  researchers including Prof Ghatak himself  in numerous  international  journal publications on optical waveguide  and fiber designs for  realization of  components  thereof including quantum well devices.

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 471-474

Ajoy K Ghatak – a physicist and teacher par excellence

Pankaj Kumar Choudhury


Recalling my acquaintance with this highly acclaimed gentleman, Ajoy K. Ghatak. My memory goes back to the days of Masters’ studentship in the year 1986 while coming across the subject, Quantum Mechanics. To some extent, the subject was interesting to me, and we had to study this in all four semesters in a two-year M. Sc. course. On the advice by our course lecturer, we had to go through certain sections, particularly the Schrödinger equation and its use in treating some of the problems in Quantum Mechanics, of the book by Ghatak & Loknathan – a very popular duo name who not only did write on Quantum Mechanics, their authorities can be witnessed in some other subject arena (of physics) as well through multiples of published volumes. That was my first interaction with Ghatak Sir, though not face-to-face. Through even books it left like a very prominent impression of his being an academic giant. During that time, several books were in record realised by leading publishing firms, and authored by this duo.

Ajoy K Ghatak – a physicist and teacher par excellence.pdf
Pankaj Kumar Choudhury


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 475-484


O-band Bi-doped fibre amplifiers: Present and Future

N K Thipparapu, J K Sahu and David N Payne

Optoelectronics Research Centre,

University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, U.K.

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


This paper reviews and discusses recent developments in O-band Bi-doped fibre amplifiers. We present the performance of Bi-doped fibre amplifier in optical fibre communication systems and provide future prospects. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fibre optics amplifiers, Fibre characterization, Fibre design and fabrication, Fibre materials


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 487-498

Light propagation through graded-index fibers: Impact of self-imaging on the nonlinear phenomena

Govind P Agrawal

The Institute of Optics,University of Rochester,
Rochester, NY,14627,USA

Invited paper dedicated to Professor Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Periodic self-imaging of optical beams inside graded-Index (GRIN) fibers has been known for more than 45 years. It has been found in recent years that spatial self-imaging also affects the nonlinear temporal evolution of optical pulses inside such fibers. In a 1974 paper that I coauthored with Prof Ghatak [1], it was shown that, in the absence of the nonlinear effects, the optical field at any point inside the GRIN fiber can be written in an analytic form without any explicit reference to its modes. The result was in the form of a propagation kernel that reproduced the input field precisely in a periodic fashion along the length of the GRIN fiber (self-imaging property).We apply this kernel first to a Gaussian beam and discuss how self-imaging affects the nonlinear effects such as modulation instability and supercontinuum generation. We then consider the impact of the spatial shape and position of the input beam (at the input facet of the fiber) on the nonlinear effects by considering off-center launch of a Gaussian beam and a circular beam with uniform intensity. The results show that the results obtained in our 1974 paper are still useful for studying nonlinear optical phenomena in modern GRIN fibers © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Graded-index fibers, Self-imaging, Nonlinear optics, Modulation instability, Supercontinuum generation


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                               Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 499-508

A world without fibre Bragg gratings

Raman Kashyap

Fabulas Laboratory, Department of Physics Engineering,

 Department of Electrical Engineering,

Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, H3T 1J4,Canada

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


It is hard to imagine what the world of photonics would be today if photosensitivity in optical fibre and fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) had not been discovered. This article traces the development of FBGs, without which, research and commercialization in many diverse areas, from lasers, sensors to bio-photonics would have been impossible. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fibre Bragg gratings, Fibre lasers, Optical sensors, Bio-photonics, Random lasers, Anderson localization


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48.   Lima B C, Pincheira P I R, Moura A L, Gomes A S L, Menezes L de S, Raposo E P, Araújo C B de, Kashyap R, Fluctuations Statistics in an Erbium Random

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49.   Lima B C, Pincheira P I R, Raposo E P, Menezes L de S, Araújo C B de, Gomes A S L, Kashyap R, Extreme-value statistics of intensities in a cw-pumped

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50.   Lima B C, Gomes A S L, Pincheira P I R, Moura A L, Gagné M, Raposo E P, Araújo C B de, Kashyap R, Observation of Lévy statistics in one-dimensional

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51.   Gonzalez I R R, Lima B C, Pincheira P I R, Brum A A, Macedo A M S, Vasconcelos G L, Menezes L de S, Raposo E P, Gomes A S L, Kashyap R,

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52.   Gomes A S L, Lima B C, Pincheira P I R, Moura A L, Gagné M, Raposo E P, Araújo C B de, Kashyap R, Glassy behavior in a one-dimensional continuous-

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57.   Parent F, Loranger S, Mandal K K, LambinIezzi V, Lapointe J, Boisvert J-S, Baiad M D, Kadoury S, Kashyap R, Enhancement of accuracy in shape sensing of

        surgical needles using optical frequency domain reflectometry in optical fibers, Biomed Opt Express, 8(2017)2210-2221.

58.   Mandal K, Parent F, Martel S, Kashyap R, Kadoury S, Vessel-based registration of an optical shape sensing catheter for M R navigation, Int J CARS,


59.   Monet F, Loranger S, Lambin-Iezzi V, Drouin A, Kadoury S, Kashyap R, The ROGUE: a novel, noise-generated random grating, Opt Express,


60.   Lorre P, Monet F, Gauthier M, Poiffaut A, Roberge A, Kadoury S, R Kashyap R, Extruded optical fiber triplets for 3D shape sensing for minimally invasive

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 509-516

Twisted light: beams carrying orbital angular momentum

Siddharth Ramachandran

Boston University,

8 Saint Mary’s Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Invited article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Light can carry both orbital angular momentum (OAM) and spin angular momentum (SAM), related to wavefront rotation and polarization, respectively. The ability to exploit these degrees of freedom in so-called optical vortices has spawned applications across the fields of opto-mechanics, sensing, telecommunications and manufacturing . In free space or bulk-optic media, SAM and OAM represent independent quantum numbers. However, from atomic and molecular systems, we also know that the presence of a confinement potential yields a spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian that hybridises these states. Photonic analogues of such spin-orbit interactions are now accessible in optical fibers, since an optical waveguide is essentially a confining “potential” for light. Here, we will show how generation, stable propagation and nonlinear interactions of light beams containing phase or polarization singularities are both altered by, and, from a device perspective, benefit from engineering spin-orbit interactions of light via optical waveguide design. After elucidating the fundamental properties of these exotic modes, we will review recent applications that have exploited fiber OAM modes. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Orbital angular momentum; Spin angular momentum; Optical vortices; Lasers; Nonlinear optics; Imaging; Sensing


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 517-526

High-efficiency ring similariton fiber laser with nonlinear spectral compression

A S Abramov1, D A Korobko1, I O Zolotovskii1 and A A Sysoliatin1,2

1Ulyanovsk State University, 42 Leo Tolstoy Street, Ulyanovsk, 432970, Russian Federation

2General Physics institute, 38, Vavilov Street, Russian Federation

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


We present a theoretical model of a ring similariton fiber laser employing nonlinear spectrum compression. A pair of tunnel-coupled optical fibers is used for passive mode-locking. The laser characteristics are simulated for a wide range of laser operation regimes and configuration parameters. The optimized laser system design enables generation of pulses with the maximal efficiency and spectral density providing the lowest losses of energy inside the cavity. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ring fiber laser, Normal dispersion, Similariton, Spectral compression


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 529-537

Blending random lasers and second order nonlinearities in
neodymium-doped crystalline powders

Anderson S L Gomes1, Lauro J Q Maia2, André L Moura3 and Cid B de Araújo1

1Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife, PE, Brazil

2Grupo Física de Materiais, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970, Goiânia-GO, Brazil

3Grupo de Física da Matéria Condensada, Núcleo de Ciências Exatas – NCEx, Campus Arapiraca,

Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57309-005, Arapiraca, AL, Brazil

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


The advent of the LASER in 1960, and its further development in the subsequent decades, radically changed the way light-matter interaction was investigated, opening new field of studies and applications based on optics and photonics. To achieve the LASER unique temporal, spectral and spatial coherence, a gain medium is placed between two fixed mirrors and appropriately excited. The so-called laser cavity provides the required feedback to achieve coherent laser oscillation. Due to its high intensity, when the laser light is propagated through a non-centrosymmetric crystal, its fundamental frequency can be doubled, leading to the so-called second harmonic generation. The observation of such phenomena in 1961 paved the way to the field of nonlinear optics. However, in 1967 a new idea was proposed that coherent radiation could also be obtained in a gain medium without the need for a fixed optical cavity. The required feedback to sustain LASER oscillation would arise from a scattering medium. In this review article, we will briefly describe the basis of random lasers and random fiber lasers, and how they can benefit from second order nonlinear optical processes, namely self-second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in the same laser medium. Therefore, tunable multi-wavelength emission not easily achievable in random lasers was demonstrated. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lasers, Random lasers, Random fiber laser, Nonlinear optics


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 541-552

Towards stable delivery of high energy through background-guided similariton pulses

Piyali Biswas and Somnath Ghosh

Department of Physics
Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur-342 037
, Rajasthan, India

Invited Paper dedicated to Prof A Ghatak on his 80th birthday


Stable delivery of high energy optical pulses through fibers is an attractive field of research owing to its wide applications in defense, bio-medical industry, chemical industry and so on. Delivery of such high energy can be possible by exploring the inherent potential of background-guided parabolic optical pulses. Asymptotic evolution of parabolic pulses largely depends on the initial pulse energy fed at the input of the fiber. Here, we have investigated the effect of presence of a hyperbolic tangent pulse as the background of an input Gaussian pulse. Further, we have numerically demonstrated the stable propagation of the evolved parabolic pulse with its characteristic linear chirp. A background-guided Gaussian pulse and a background-guided hyperbolic secant pulse, centered at 980 nm wavelength, have been fed at the input end of a dispersion decreasing Bragg fiber and allowed to propagate over several kilometers of the fiber length. The entire propagation has come out to be more stable, and shows closer asymptotic behavior in comparison with the conventional propagation of a single Gaussian or a single hyperbolic secant pulse of same energy. Such a scheme should be attractive in stable delivery of high energy pulses including applications in mid-IR spectroscopy, defense and medical surgery. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Parabolic pulse, Nonlinear fiber optics, High energy pulse, Similaritons.


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Towards stable delivery of high energy through background-guided similariton pulses.pdf
Piyali Biswas and Somnath Ghosh


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 555-566

Fibre optic sensors - an exemplar on the routes to applications

Brian Culshaw

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland UK

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Photonics excites as a science and also has very wide-ranging applications potential. The fascination has stimulated extensive academic research, much with intriguing results and often these results offer the hint of potential application. Indeed, many authors emphasise this in their research publications. This application potential, whilst acknowledged through many international organisations and funding bodies, requires substantial commitment to ensure that this potential is realised. The steps along the way are diverse and challenging and in this discussion paper we shall reflect on the history of fibre optic sensors and from this endeavour to identify the characteristics of the principal stages in the process of applying concepts. Whilst this does require a somewhat different philosophy from that required for pure research, pursuing these steps is something many will find intriguing, challenging and very rewarding. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fibre optic sensors, Product realisation, Career prospects


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 567-576

Fibre optic chemical sensors for environmental monitoring
using sensitive nano-material coatings

Kasun Prabuddha Dissanayake1, Papiya Dhara1,2, Rahul Kumar1, Souvik Ghosh1, Hien T Nguyen1, Tong Sun1, and Kenneth T V Grattan1

1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, City, University of London, London, EC1V 0HB, United Kingdom

2Department of Physics, Adamas University, Kolkata, India, 700126

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


In this work the development of two different optical fibre-based chemical sensors (OFCSs), applied to better environmental monitoring, is discussed and results on the design and performance of these sensors are presented. Firstly, a graphene oxide (GO)-coated Long Period Grating (LPG)-based device, sensitive to the refractive index (RI) change caused by ambient humidity levels over the important range of 60% RH to 95% RH used for environmental monitoring, is discussed. Secondly, an OFCS device has been developed for the detection of Pb2+ ion. It was achieved by dip coating ~ 50 nm gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) on a multi-mode optical fibre and subsequently functionalizing with 1-Mercaptoundecanoic acid, to make it selective to Pb2+ ions. The Pb2+ ion sensor developed shows a sensitivity of 2.8 ×10–4 nm/µM and response time of 30s. The results obtained from these two important chemical sensor schemes highlight the importance of the use of various nanomaterials in creating novel OFCS, allowing tailoring of their performance to several environmental monitoring applications. The chemical synthesis and the functionalization of coatings such as GO and Au-NP on optical fibre paves the ways for novel OFCS device that could have important commercial potential for a wide range of applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Optical fibre, Plasmonics, Long-Period Grating, Graphene Oxide, Gold Nanoparticles



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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 579-585

Tapered thin core fiber based highly sensitive twist sensor without temperature crosstalk

Wenjun Ni1,2, Baocheng Li1,2, Chenlu Wang1,2, Yu Zheng1,2, Ran Xia1,2, Yiyang Luo1,2, Chunyong Yang3 and Perry Ping Shum2

1School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore

2CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Nanyang Technological University,637553, Singapore

3Hubei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Wireless Communications, College of Electronics and Information Engineering,

South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, China

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


A highly sensitive twist sensor without temperature cross sensitivity based on tapered thin core fiber (TTCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The transmission spectrum is characterized by the several dominant dips induced by the mode field mismatch between the TTCF and single mode fiber (SMF). The twist sensitivity of 0.12dB/° is achieved by tracking the intensity variation of the resonant wavelength, and the corresponding wavelength shift is located in the range of ±5pm. Similarly, the temperature sensitivity of 116pm/°C can be obtained by doing the FFT filtering on the transmission spectrum, and the corresponding power fluctuation of the selected resonant wavelength is ± 0.0006dB. Therefore, the proposed fiber sensor can realize the simultaneous measurement of twist and temperature without cross sensitivity. All these findings pave access to the practical applications of torsion measurement in the field of structural health monitoring. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Twist, Temperature, Tapered thin core fiber, Without cross sensitivity


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 589-602

Cavity ring-down sensing techniques – A review

S O Silvaa, M B Marquesa,b, J L Santosa,b, P A S Jorgea,b and O Frazãoa,b

aINESC TEC- Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science,
Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal

bDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto,
Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


A review on fiber cavity ring-down (CRD) technique is presented. It addresses the main developments in this area, namely, researches involving the conventional fiber CRD configuration, i.e., cavities using two couplers with high splitting ratios, as well as the linear cavity CRD setup. Improvements of the CRD technology are discussed, where the inclusion of optical circulators and optical time domain reflectometers has been successfully demonstrated for sensing. The presented review is divided in different topics related to the measurement of physical parameters, such as strain and temperature, curvature, pressure, refractive index, gas and biochemical sensing. In particular, the work developed by our research group on this subject will be fully addressed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cavity-ring down, Optical fiber sensors, Physical parameters.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 605-620

Manipulation of vector beams produced in optical fiber and an application as strain sensor

Partha Roy Chaudhuri1, Saba N Khan2 and Sudip K Chatterjee3

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721, 302, India

2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110 016, India

3Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208 016, India

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


We report here our studies on the controlled generation of the doughnut-shaped zeroth-order vector modes (ZVM) alongside the corresponding scalar linearly polarized (LP) modes with a view to exploring the synthesis of various spatial vector beams by suitable superposition of the constituent basis modes. Then we present our experimental details of the controlled generation of a linearly polarized two-lobe, first-order azimuthally asymmetric beam (F-AAB) in a few-mode fiber (FMF) for a given set of input launching conditions (described with tilt and offset) and the state of polarization (SOP) of an input Gaussian mode (TEM00). A continual switching of polarization mode structure having identical intensity profile and progressive mode toggling from F-AAB to doughnut-shaped intensity pattern is demonstrated under distinct launching state. Novel optical beams namely, decentralized elliptical Gaussian beam (DEGB) possessing homogenous spatial polarization and two-grain T-polarized beam having mutually orthogonal SOP are obtained by enhancing the contribution of the fundamental mode (HE11 or, LP01) in selectively excited F-AAB. Finally, this particular study led to the designing of a highly sensitive strain measuring device owing to the large difference in propagation constants of the participating modes (LP01 and one of the F-AABs). Each of the experimentally observed intensity/polarization distributions is theoretically mapped on a one-to-one basis considering a linear superposition of appropriately excited linearly polarized basis modes of the waveguide namely, LP11 modes having both polarizations (x and y) and parity (even and odd) toward a complete understanding of the polarization and mode propagation in the few-mode structure. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vector beams, Optical fiber, Few-mode fiber, Spatial polarization, Switching of modes, Strain sensor


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 623-629

Optical Tweezers - the invention of which got the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics

Pradeep Kumar Gupta

Physics Department, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


The widespread applications of optical tweezers particularly in biological sciences have led to the award of one half of the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 2018 to its inventor Arthur Ashkin. In this article, I briefly describe some aspects of the work carried out by us on the use of optical tweezers for transport, rotation/orientation and sorting of microscopic objects. Use of the optical tweezers for the measurement of visco-elastic parameters of biological objects is discussed next. The use of optical tweezers to acquire spatially resolved Raman spectra from optically trapped cells and some results obtained using these so-called Raman Tweezers are also presented. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Optical Tweezers, Laser manipulation of microscopic objects, Raman tweezers


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                              Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 631-642

Low-power and high-frequency optogenetic control of spiking in
ultrafast red-shifted Chrimson-expressing neurons

Himanshu Bansal, Neha Gupta and Sukhdev Roy

Department of Physics and Computer Science,

Dayalbagh Educational Institute Agra-282005, India;

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


A detailed theoretical analysis and optimization of low-power temporally precise optogenetic control of high-frequency spiking in red-shifted opsin-expressing neurons has been presented. A four-state model for the photocycle of Chrimson, f-Chrimson and vf-Chrimson has been formulated and incorporated in fast spiking Wang-Buzsaki interneuron circuit model. Theoretical simulations are in excellent agreement with reported experimental results. The analysis brings out additional interesting features. Under multiple photostimulations at high-frequency, vf-Chrimson shows minimum photocurrent plateau among all-three variants. Chrimson maintains spiking fidelity upto 20 Hz, at 0.13 mW/mm2, and results in multispiking at higher frequencies. The study reveals that under optimal photostimulation protocols, f-Chrimson and vf-Chrimson both can induce spiking upto 400 Hz. Low-latency observed in spiking of vf-Chrimson-expressing neurons indicates its suitability for temporally precise high-frequency optogenetic applications. However, lower-power control allowed in f-Chrimson-expressing neurons indicates its suitability for minimizing heating effects and deep brain stimulation. The study is useful to design new low-power and high frequency optogenetic neural spiking experiments with desired spatiotemporal resolution, to provide insights into temporal spike coding and plasticity and to design neuroprosthetic devices. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsins, Chrimson, vf-Chrimson, f-Chrimson, Red-shifted opsins, Neural spiking, Computational optogenetics.


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 645-653

All-dielectric metasurface for complex-amplitude modulation for linearly polarized light

Jangwoon Sung, Gun-Yeal Lee, Jongwoo Hong, Hyunwoo Son and Byoungho Lee

Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Seoul National University, Gwanak-GuGwanakro 1, Seoul 08826, South Korea

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


We propose a simple-shaped metasurface platform that can modulate phase and amplitude independently. The proposed structure is designed to modulate the phase and amplitude independently of the co-polarized light when the linearly polarized light is incident. By fine-tuning structural parameters of silicon nanorods, we achieved independent control of amplitude and phase at linearly polarized light incidence condition. Maximum efficiency of proposed scheme has reached up to 90%, which is verified numerically. This scheme has potential to be applied in various holographic applications, which require linearly polarized light. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Metasurfaces, Metamaterials, Complex-amplitude modulation


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                             Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 655-660

Metasurfaces for magnetic field enhancement

Keshav Samrat Modi1,2, Jasleen Kaur1,2, Satya Pratap Singh2, Umesh Tiwari1,2 and Ravindra Kumar Sinha1,2,3

1Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201 002, India

2CSIR- Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh, India-160 030

3TIFAC-Center of Relevance and Excellence in Fiber Optics and Optical Communication,
Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110 042, India

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


In this paper, we present the comparison of different metasurfaces which shows magnetic field enhancement when interacts with RF radiation. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, the proposed metasurfaces redistribute the electromagnetic field such that magnetic field gets enhanced while electric field gets diminished over the centre of the metasurface. The enhancement in the magnetic field is required for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio. The different metasurfaces are compared based on their characteristic response to the interacting electromagnetic field. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Metasurfaces, Resonance, Field enhancement and Metalo-dielectric structure


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10.   Modi K S, Singh S P, Tiwari U, Sinha R, Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Microwave and Photonics (ICMAP-2018), Indian Institute of

        Technology, (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, India, 2018.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 663-685

Fano Resonances in Terahertz Metamaterials

Subhajit Karmakar1, Ravendra K Varshney1, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury2 and Bishnu P Pal2

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, 110 016, India

2Department of Physics, Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, 500 043, India

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Fano resonance is an important phenomenon in physics. Unlike in conventional Lorentzian resonances, normally Fano resonance is characterized by sharp, asymmetrical spectral features that are induced by interference phenomenon. During recent years Fano modes have attracted intense interest in metamaterial systems too. This review is intended to present history, physics and properties of various devices that exploit Fano resonance at terahertz frequency domain in the field of metamaterials systems. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fano resonance, Metamaterials, Terahertz, Optical devices.


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148. Manjappa M, Srivastava Y K, Cong L, Al-Naib I A I, Singh R, Active photo switching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices, Adv Mater, 29(2017)1603355;

149. Manjappa M, Pitchappa P, Singh N, Wang N, Zheludev N I, Lee C, Singh R, Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies, Nat Commun, 9(2018) 4056;

150. Fan P, Yu Z, Fan S, Brongersma M L, Optical fano resonance of an individual semiconductor nanostructure, Nat Mater, 13(2014)471-475.

151. Shcherbakov M R, Liu S, Zubyuk V V, Vaskin A, Vabishchevich P P, Keeler G, Pertsch T, Dolgova T V, Staude I, Brener I, Fedyanin A A, Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces, Nat Commun, 8 (2017)17;

152. Srivastava Y K, Manjappa M, Krishnamoorthy H N S, Singh R, Accessing the high-Q dark plasmonic Fano resonances in superconductor metasurfaces, Adv Opt Mater, 4 (2016)1875-1881.

153. Srivastava Y K, Manjappa M, Cong L, Krishnamoorthy H N S, Savinov V, Pitchappa P, Singh R, A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch, Adv Mater, 30(2018)1801257;

154. Wuttig M, Bhaskaran H, Taubner T, Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications, Nat Photonics, 11(2017)465-476.

155. Cao T, Wei C, Simpson R E, Zhang L, Cryan M J, Fast tuning of Fano resonance in metal/phase-change materials/metal metamaterials, Opt Mater Express, 4(2014)1775-1786.

156. Makarov S, Furasova A, Tiguntseva E, Hemmetter A, Berestennikov A, Pushkarev A, Zakhidov A, Kivshar Y, Halide-Perovskite Resonant Nanophotonics, Adv Opt Mater, 7(2019)1800784;

157. Pitchappa P, Kumar A, Prakash S, Jani H, Venkatesan T, Singh R, Chalcogenide Phase Change Material for Active Terahertz Photonics, Adv Mater, 31(2019)1808157;

158.        Cong L, Xu N, Chowdhury D R, Manjappa M, Rockstuhl C, Zhang W, Singh R, Nonradiative and Radiative Resonances in Coupled Metamolecules, Adv Opt Mater, 4(2016)252-258;


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                              Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 689-699

Wavefront aberrations with incomplete Hartmann-Shack sensor data

Abbas Ommani1, Natalie Hutchings2, Ritambhar Burman3, Damber Thapa4 and Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan1

1Theoretical and Experimental Epistemology Lab, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo

2School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON., Canada

3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

4Department of Mechanical Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Wavefront aberrations describe the optical imperfections of the eye’s optical elements and are measured using the Hartmann Shack (HS) sensor. However, obtaining a reliable measurement of ocular aberrations can be difficult under some conditions. One specific challenge of estimating the ocular aberration clinically is when the data from the HS sensor are absent due to the opacities in the ocular components due to disease. In this paper, we studied this issue by randomly deleting a number of spots from the HS images and comparing the results with the aberration of the original HS image without the missing spots. The wavefront was derived from the HS data using Zernike polynomials. The results indicate that as much as 60 % of the HS spots can be missing without affecting the estimation of spherical defocus within typical clinically acceptable limits of ±0.25D. The results are further examined with in vivo measurements of a human eye wearing a spectacle lens simulating various models of clustered missing spots due to different disease conditions. The findings of this study provide foundational data on measuring the ocular wavefront aberrations when only a reduced HS measurement data set is available. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wavefront aberrations, Huaneye, Hartmann-Shack sensor, Higher-order aberrations, Zernike Polynomials, Aberrometry, Clinical ophthalmology, Clinical optometry


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        Opt Soc Am A, 11(1994)1949-1957.

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        2008 (ISO 24157:2008).

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 701-716

Review of optical image encryption schemes based on fractional Hartley transform

Phool Singh1, A K Yadav2, Sunanda Vashisth3 and Kehar Singh4

1Department of Mathematics (SOET), Central University of Haryana,Mahendergarh, India 123031

2Department of Applied Mathematics, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, India 122413

3Department of Science, DPG Degree College, Gurugram, India 122001

4Department of Applied Sciences, The North Cap University, Gurugram, India 122017

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


A review of symmetric and asymmetric image encryption schemes in the fractional Hartley domain is presented in this paper. Symmetric schemes based on double random phase encoding along with chaotic transform are discussed along with flowcharts of the encryption and decryption processes. Symmetric image encryption scheme using structured phase masks based on devil’s vortex Fresnel lens is reported. Asymmetric schemes based on phase and amplitude truncation, and on modified equal modulus decomposition are also presented. Further, we discuss attacks on schemes based on the fractional Hartley transform. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fractional Hartley transform, symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystem, image encryption, double random phase encoding.


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        Communications, Al Falou A, (ed), Bristol UK: IOP Publ. (2018) p. 5.1-15.          

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23.   Unnikrishnan G, Singh K, Double random fractional Fourier-domain encoding for optical security, Opt Eng, 39 (2000)2853-2859.

24.   Unnikrishnan G, Joseph J, Singh K, Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain, Opt Lett,  25(2000)887-889.

25.   Situ G, Zhang J, Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain, Opt Lett,  29(2004)1584-1586.

26.   Chen L, Zhao D, Optical image encryption with Hartley transforms, Opt Lett,  31(2006)3438-3440.

27.   Liu Z, Guo Q, Xu L, Ahmad MA, Liu S, Double image encryption by using iterative random binary encoding in gyrator domains, Opt Express,


28.   Singh H, Yadav A K, Vashisth S, Singh K, Double phase-image encryption using gyrator transforms, and structured phase mask in the frequency plane, Opt

        Lasers Eng, 67(2015)145-156.

29.   Joshi M, Chandrashakher, Singh K, Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform, Opt Commun, 279(2007)35-42.

30.   Kumar J, Singh P, Yadav A K, Kumar A, Asymmetric cryptosystem for phase images in fractional Fourier domain using LU-decomposition and Arnold

        transform, Procedia Comput Sci, 132(2018)1570-1577.

31.   Singh H, Yadav AK, Vashisth S, Singh K, A cryptosystem for watermarking based on fractional Fourier transform using a random phase mask in the input

        plane and a structured phase mask in the frequency plane, Asian J Phys, 23(2014)597-612.

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        frequency plane followed by a gyrator transform, Asian J Phys, 24 (2015)1-16. 

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        Int J Opt, 2014(2014), 9 pages;

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        Fiber Optics and Photonics’, Kharagpur: OSA, (2016), p. Tu4A.68.

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        positioning singular value decomposition, Optik, 187(2019)238-257.

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        Opt Lett, 38(2013)4044-4044.

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        Opt, 54(2015)8921-8924.                                    

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        Appl, (2019) Published online: 4 June 2019; doi:10.1007/s11042-019-7733-y.

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        domains deploying equal modulus decomposition, Opt Quantum Electron, 51(2019)140;

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 719-746

Axial vs radial junction nanowire solar cell

Vidur Raj, Hark Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish

1Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics,

The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


Both axial and radial junction nanowire solar cells have their own challenges and advantages. However, so far, there is no review which explicitly provides a detailed comparative analysis of both axial and radial junction solar cells. This article reviews some of the recent results on axial and radial junction nanowire solar cells with an attempt to perform a comparative study between the optical and device behavior of these cells. In particular, we start by reviewing different results on ways in which the absorption can be tuned in axial and radial junction solar cells. We also discuss results on some of the critical device concepts that are required to achieve high efficiency in axial and radial junction solar cells. We include a section on new device concepts that can be realized in nanowire structures. Finally, we conclude this review by discussing a few of the standing challenges of nanowire solar cells. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Nanowire, Axial junction, Radial junction, III-V solar cells


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Axial vs radial junction nanowire solar cell.pdf
Vidur Raj, Hark Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                                 Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 749-759

Design, characterisation and optimisation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic devices

Weifeng Jiang1, Souvik Ghosh2, and B M A Rahman2

1College of Electronic and Optical Engineering,

Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China.

2City University of London, United Kingdom, EC1V 0HB

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


In this paper, we review several recent works on the silicon-on-insulator based nanometre scaled photonic devices. First, we present three novel designs of SOI-based power splitter, polarisation splitter, and spot-size converter and their working efficiencies. Next, a smart design of horizontal slot hybrid plasmonic waveguide incorporated asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (A-MZI) is reported as an efficient temperature sensor where the deterioration of the interference fringe visibility has been compensated by using an unequal power splitting configuration. The synergy of high index contrast of the SOI platform and comprehensive design analyses make them attractive for the on-chip photonic device applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Silicon photonics, Finite element method (FEM), modal solutions, LSBR, photonic devices


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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 28 Nos 7-9, 2019, 761-774

Are optical quantum information processing experiments possible without beamsplitter?

Kishore Thapliyal1 and Anirban Pathak2

1RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and

Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University,

17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic

2Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201309, India

Invited Article dedicated to Prof Ajoy Ghatak on his 80th Birthday


The significance of beamsplitter in experimental optical quantum information processing and quantum technology is discussed with a focus on the role of a beamsplitter-type Hamiltonian in the recent development in this field of research. Here, we follow a new approach to briefly describe quantum measurement, Bell measurement, quantum state engineering, quantum teleportation, cryptography, and computation using both discrete and continuous variables to establish the wide applications of beamsplitter-type operation. Finally, we also discuss the limitations of this linear optical element. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Beamsplitter operation, quantum computation, quantum communication, quantum state engineering, ap- plications of beamsplitter operation


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