An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

Title Vol 28 Nos 10-12(2019)


SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 28, Nos 10-12, October-December, 2019


Journal of Physics


Volume 28, Nos 10-12, October-December 2019


A Special Issue Dedicated


Prof Kehar Singh

Formerly Professor of Physics at IIT Delhi

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

About Professor Kehar Singh

Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at  Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at  British Scientific and Industrial Research Association Ealing , Queen’s Univ. Belfast , and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and during the period 1996-1999 served as Head of Physics Deptt. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec. 2002. Until June 30, 2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research.

Prof Kehar Singh

Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information security and Nanophotonics (Photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, and plasmonics). Prof. Singh is also Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He is a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. Since  May 2015, he has been working as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA). 
Prof. Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having crossed the number of 960 citations.
Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph.D. theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Prof. Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy key positions in India and abroad.
Professor Kehar Singh was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honoured him with the ‘OSI Award’. He was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007,and Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi in 2011.Prof.Singh was also honored in 2011,under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
Prof.Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering, in addition to being  a Fellow of the Optical Society of India and the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President from 1988 to 1991. He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory  member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010 ), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Engg. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006). Currently he serves as an Associate Editor of Optics Express (2015----todate), Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India, 1974 – to date), Asian J. Phys. (1992 – to date). and  Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ). He also served as an editorial board member of the Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. (CSIR, 1986 – 88).
Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995.
Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ held in Dehradun, India in Dec. 1998, Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics  held in December 2005 at Dehradun, and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar, during the period Nov. 23-26, 2017, and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi during the period Dec. 12-15,2018. Prof Singh is also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the upcoming International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics to be held at IRDE Dehradun during the period Oct.19-22,2019.
Professor Singh has  edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J. Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the National Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurgaon. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering College. Kurukshetra and served on the ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities. He also served as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).

About the Guest Editor
Rajpal S. Sirohi is currently serving in the Physics Department, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, Alabama USA. Prior to this (2013-2016), he was the Chair Professor, Physics Department, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam, India. He was Distinguished Scholar (2011-2013) in the Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. During 2000-2011, he had been deeply engaged in academic administration and research as Director, IIT Delhi (Dec. 2000-April 2005); Vice-Chancellor, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (April 2005-Sept. 2007); Vice-Chancellor, Shobhit University, Meerut (Oct.2007-March 2008); Vice-Chancellor, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur (March 2008-Oct.2009) and Vice-Chancellor, Invertis University, Bareilly (Jan 2011-Oct.2011).

R S Sirohi

He was also Visitor to Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (June 2012- June 2013). Prof. Sirohi did his Masters in Physics in 1964 from Agra University, and Post M.Sc. in Applied Optics and Ph. D. in Physics both from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi in 1965 and 1970, respectively. Prof. Sirohi was Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department at Indian Institute of Technology Madras during 1971-1979. He became Professor in the Physics Department of the same Institute in 1979. He superannuated in April 2005 from IIT Delhi.
Prof. Sirohi worked in Germany as a Humboldt Fellow at PTB, Braunschweig, and as a Humboldt Awardee at Oldenburg University. He was a Senior Research Associate at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, and Associate Professor, and Distinguished Scholar at Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana. He was ICTP (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste Italy) Consultant to Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia and ICTP Visiting Scientist to the University of Namibia. He was Visiting Professor at the National University of Singapore and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Prof. Sirohi is Fellow of several important academies/ societies in India and abroad including the Indian National Academy of Engineering; National Academy of Sciences India; Optical Society of America; Optical Society of India; SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering); Instrument Society of India and honorary fellow of ISTE and Metrology Society of India. He is member of several other scientific societies, and founding member of India Laser Association. Prof. Sirohi was also the Chair for SPIE-INDIA Chapter, which he established with co-operation from SPIE in 1995 at IIT Madras. He was invited as JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Fellow and JITA Fellow to Japan. He was a member of the Education Committee of SPIE.
Prof. Sirohi has received the following awards from various organizations:
Humboldt Research Award (1995) by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany; Galileo Galilei Award of International Commission for Optics (1995); Amita De Memorial Award of the Optical Society of India (1998); 13th Khwarizmi International Award, IROST (Iranian Research Organisation for Science and Technology (2000); Albert Einstein Silver Medal, UNESCO (2000); Dr. YT Thathachari Prestigious Award for Science by Thathachari Foundation, Mysore (2001); Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Award in Engineering & Technology for 2000 (awarded in 2002) by MP Council of Science and Technology; NRDC Technology Invention Award on May 11, 2003; Sir CV Raman Award: Physical Sciences for 2002 by UGC (University Grants Commission); Padma Shri, a national Civilian Award (2004); Sir CV Raman Birth Centenary Award (2005) by Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata; Holo-Knight (2005), inducted into Order of Holo- Knights during the International Conference-Fringe 05-held at Stuttgart, Germany; Centenarian Seva Ratna Award (2004) by The Centenarian Trust, Chennai; Instrument Society of India Award (2007); Gabor Award (2009) by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) USA; UGC National Hari OM Ashram Trust Award - Homi J. Bhabha Award for Applied Sciences (2005) by UGC; Distinguished Alumni Award (2013) by Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Vikram Award 2014 by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) USA.
Prof. Sirohi was the President of the Optical Society of India during 1994-1996. He was also the President of Instrument Society of India for three terms (2003-06, 2007-09, 2010-12). He was on the International Advisory Board of the Journal of Modern Optics, UK and on the editorial Boards of the Journal of Optics (India), Optik, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. He was Guest Editor to the Journals “Optics and Lasers in Engineering” and “Optical Engineering”. He was Associate Editor of the International Journal “Optical Engineering”, USA during (1999-Aug.2013), and currently is its Senior Editor. He is the Series Editor of the Series on ‘Advances in Optics, Photonics and Optoelectronics’ published by Institute of Physics Publishing, UK. He is also on the Editorial Board of Asian Journal of Physics.
Prof. Sirohi has 456 papers to his credit with 244 published in national and international journals, 67 papers in Proceedings of the conferences and 145 presented in conferences.He has authored/co-authored/edited thirteen books including five milestones for SPIE. He was Principal Coordinator for 26 projects sponsored by Government Funding Agencies and Industries, has supervised 25 Ph.D. theses, 7 M.S. theses and numerous B.Tech., M.Sc. and M.Tech. theses.
Prof. Sirohi’s research areas are Optical Metrology, Optical Instrumentation, Laser Instrumentation, Holography and Speckle Phenomenon.

Asian Journal of Physics

(A Publication Not for Profit)

Volume 28, Nos 10-12 (2019)



Guest Editorial

About Prof Kehar Singh

About the Guest Editor

Transport of intensity equation for phase imaging: A review

Alok K Gupta and Naveen K Nishchal                                                                                                                                                                                       777

Performance analysis of an improved target detection technique based on quadratic correlation filters for surveillance applications

Arun Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan                                                                                                                                                                              787

Polarized light in biophotonics: enabling technology towards tissue characterization, diagnosis and imaging

S Chandel, S Saha and N Ghosh                                                                                                                                                                                                 795

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of emotions from image sequences using optical flow magnitude

Shivangi Anthwal and Dinesh Ganotra                                                                                                                                                                                       813

Optical image encryption using various mathematical transforms and structure phase masks: A review

Anshula and Hukum Singh                                                                                                                                                                                                          825

Speckle-free common-path digital interference phase microscopy using single element interferometers with partially spatially coherent light source

Veena Singh, Shilpa Tayal and Dalip Singh Mehta                                                                                                                                                                     857

Generation of Stokes vortices in three, four and six circularly polarized beam interference

Sushanta Kumar Pal, Sarvesh Bansal and P Senthilkumaran                                                                                                                                                    867

Guided wave photonics for light sources, sensors and passive components at mid-IR

Babita Bakshi (nee Kumari), Ajanta Barh, Somnath Ghosh, Ravendra K Varshney and Bishnu P Pal                                                                                     877

Trends in micro-optics and nanophotonics technology

Amitava Ghosh, Amit K Agarwal and M P Singh                                                                                                                                                                       891

Broadband infrared emissivity engineering in optically transparent metamaterials by regulation of electromagnetic resonances

Nitish Kumar Gupta, Harshawardhan Wanare and S Anantha Ramakrishna                                                                                                                           899

Degree of polarization of a spectral electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam passing through 2-f and 4-f lens systems

Rajneesh Joshi and Bhaskar Kanseri                                                                                                                                                                                         907

Role of speckle grains in the information optics

R K Singh                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    921

Imaging based system for performing total leukocyte count in minute volumes of human blood

Bhargab Das, Swati Bansal, Girish C Mohanta, Sanjit K Debnath, Raj Kumar and Prateek Bhatia                                                                                       929

Noise sensitivity of the fast two-step fractional fringe detection method in digital holography

Kedar Khare                                                                                                                                                                                                                               941

Asymmetric color image encryption mechanism using equal modulus and random decomposition in hybrid transform domain

Pankaj Rakheja, Phool Singh, A K Yadavand Akhil Arora                                                                                                                                                        947

Plasmonic nanowire coupled to zero-dimensional nanostructures: A brief review

Sunny Tiwari, Chetna Taneja and G V Pavan Kumar                                                                                                                                                                961

Phase reconstruction using compressive parallel phase shift digital holography with Haar wavelet sparsification

Prakash Ramachandran and Anith Nelleri                                                                                                                                                                                983

Vectorial imaging techniques for insights into the principles of optical tweezers

Sirshendu Dinda and Debabrata Goswami                                                                                                                                                                               989

Self-similar light structures in the far field diffraction regions of self-similar radial Walsh filters

P Mukherjee and L N Hazra                                                                                                                                                                                                      1015

Consideration of freshness and taste of Japanese tomatoes - Comparison of laser biospeckle, and different sensing technologies with human perception

Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan, Yuya Tanaka and Hirofumi Kadono                                                                                                                                         1027

Optical metrology via the photorefractive effect

Arun Anand and C S Narayanamurthy                                                                                                                                                                                      1035

Phase-controlled interference lithography: Recent advances in efficient designing of photonic architectures

Swagato Sarkar and Joby Joseph                                                                                                                                                                                              1049

Multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength optical interferometries

Rajpal S Sirohi                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1091

Quantitative phase imaging techniques: Clinical practices

Hanu Phani Ram, Aswathy Vijay, Vikas Thapa, Ashwini Subhash Galande, Renu John                                                                                                          1103

Surface plasmons resonance based refractive index sensors using bimetallic configurations

Ashish Bijalwan and Vipul Rastogi                                                                                                                                                                                           1127

Investigations of magnetic resonances with modulated laser excitation in the atomic medium for magnetometry applications

Gour S Pati and Renu Tripathi                                                                                                                                                                                                  1149

Light Scattering by Turbid Media

M R Shenoy and Kalpak Gupta                                                                                                                                                                                                 1163

Variational method for the modes of optical fibers

Anurag Sharma                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1175

Optical and photoluminescence properties of Ca and Cd doped spin coated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films

Anchal Srivastava                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1187

Understanding dynamic beam shaping using liquid crystal spatial light modulator based binary holograms

Karuna Sindhu Malik, Nagendra Kumar, Akanshu Chauhan, Nedup Sherpa and Bosanta R Boruah                                                                                     1197

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 777-786

Transport of intensity equation for phase imaging: A review

Alok K Gupta and Naveen K Nishchal
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna,
Bihta, Patna-801 106, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Quantitative phase imaging has attracted widespread attention of the research community because of its extensive applications in metrology and biological sciences. The techniques are broadly divided into interferometric and non-interferometric categories. The transport of intensity equation (TIE) based phase imaging method comes under the non-interferometric category. The TIE has usual advantages over the interferometric techniques because of partial coherence illumination and direct phase recovery without any unwrapping complexity. However, it has some limitations also such as paraxial approximation, near Fresnel region diffraction, and knowledge of appropriate boundary conditions. This article reviews the difficulties and complexities while solving the TIE for accurate quantitative phase map. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Non-interferometric phase imaging, Transport of intensity equation, Quantitative phase imaging

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56. Bie R, Yuan X H, Zhao M, Zhang L, Method for estimating the axial intensity derivative in the TIE with higher order intensity derivatives and noise

      suppression, Opt Express, 20(2012)8186-8191.
57. Soto M, Acosta E, Improved phase imaging from intensity measurements in multiple planes, Appl Opt, 46(2007) 7978-7981.
58. Medhi B, Hegde G M, Reddy K J, Roy D, Vasu R M, Shock-wave imaging by density recovery from intensity measurements, Appl Opt, 57(2018)4297-4308.
59. Allen L, Oxley M, Phase retrieval from series of images obtained by defocus variation, Opt Commun, 199(2001) 65-75.
60. Schmalz J A, Gureyev T E, Paganin D M, Pavlov K M, Phase retrieval using radiation and matter-wave fields: Validity of Teague’s method for solution of the

      transport-of-intensity equation, Phys Rev A, 84(2011)023808;
61. Zuo C, Chen Q, Huang L, Asundi A, Phase discrepancy analysis and compensation for fast Fourier transform based solution of the transport of intensity

      equation, Opt Express, 22(2014)17172-17186.
62. Ferrari J A, Ayubi G A, Flores J L, Perciante C D, Transport of intensity equation: Validity limits of the usually accepted solution, Opt Commun,


Transport of intensity equation for phase imaging: A review.pdf
Alok K Gupta and Naveen K Nishchal


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 787-793

Performance analysis of an improved target detection technique based
on quadratic correlation filters for surveillance applications

Arun Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan
Instruments Research and Development Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun-248 008, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his contributions to Optics & Photonics

An improved target detection method based on Quadratic Correlation Filters (QCF) is proposed for surveillance application to detect the target amid the clutter in visible imagery. The proposed improvement helps in reducing the false alarm rate thereby improving the performance. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is carried out on the frames of a video sequence by varying three parameters – target window size, variance check value, and positive filter threshold value. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Target detection, Recognition, Quadratic correlation filter, Variance, Target recognition performance analysis.

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Enter file download description here


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 795-812

Polarized light in biophotonics: enabling technology towards tissue characterization, diagnosis and imaging

S Chandel1, S Saha1,2 and N Ghosh1
1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata,741 246, W B, India
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


In this article, we have addressed the current status of optical polarimetry for biomedical assessment. Polarimetric imaging and spectroscopy has already shown considerable promise in detecting various diseases e.g precancerous changes, but it still remains to be rigorously investigated. Owing to their immense potential for in vivo tissue characterization and diagnosis, polarization incorporated experimental system are improvising rapidly to be utilized for advanced biomedical applications. Although a simplified version of some of these systems have been used in clinics but there are still formidable challenges ahead, both technical challenges and challenges in analysis, interpretation, quantification of the tissue polarimetry signal and finally relating it to the actual tissue morphology. Here, we have discussed with illustrative examples that quantitative polarimetric measurements can provide morphological, biochemical and functional information of potential biomedical importance. These results address some of the outstanding challenges in biomedical polarimetry and demonstrate the promise of polarimetry as a non-invasive optical tool for tissue characterization and diagnosis. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Polarization, Mueller Matrix, Fluorescence, Optical diagnosis

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 813-824


Qualitative and quantitative assessment of emotions from image sequences using optical flow magnitude

Shivangi Anthwal and Dinesh Ganotra
Department of Applied Science and Humanities,
Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Delhi-110 006, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Facial expressions provide pertinent cues helpful in deducing one’s emotional state. Prospective applications of automated cognition of emotions through facial expressions in smart environments has engendered a surge of interest in the last decade. In this work, an approach is presented where facial expressions are characterized by analyzing the motion pattern of facial features arising when a neutral face transforms into an emotional face. For qualitative analysis, emotional patterns are categorized into six discrete basic emotion classes with descriptors giving the spatial distribution of the magnitude of dense optical flow across the entire image domain between emotional and neutral facial images. Classification scheme based on k-nearest neighbor has been employed for categorization. Promising results from comparative analysis of the proposed method with pre-trained Microsoft face application programming interface on the sequences derived from Extended Cohn Kanade database and Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database demonstrate the efficiency of the flow magnitude based descriptor. For quantitative assessment of emotions, intensity scores are computed by finding the root mean square deviation between reference flow matrix and the flow matrix corresponding to input frame. The computed intensity scores are well in agreement with the visually apparent emotional intensity levels depicted by the expression. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical flow, Emotion analysis, Facial expression recognition, Emotional intensity.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 857-866


Speckle-free common-path digital interference phase microscopy using single element

interferometers with partially spatially coherent light source

Veena Singh, Shilpa Tayal and Dalip Singh Mehta
Bio-photonics and Green Photonics Laboratory, Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Digital interferometeric phase microscopy (DIPM) is one of the most promising techniques which helps in the visualization and measurement of transparent biological cells. Mostly, non common-path DIPM is employed for experimentation compared to common path interferometers, but they suffer from the drawback that they are temporally unstable compared to their counterparts. In addition to poor temporal stability, high spatial phase sensitivity is also an essential requirement in the accurate measurement of phase. Lasers are the most commonly employed light source in DIPM, but due to their high coherence properties they lead to the generation of speckles and spurious fringes,which degrades the quality of measurement. In this paper, we report the development of speckle-free common path DIPM systems using single element interferometers, which has high spatial phase sensitivity along with high temporal stability. The DIPM systems implemented uses partially spatially coherent light source to increase the spatial phase sensitivity, and their common path nature helps in the attainment of high temporal stability. Two common path modalities have been developed one using lateral shearing interferometer while another using Fresnel biprism. The experiments are carried out on industrial as well as biological specimens. Results of temporal stability, spatial phase sensivity, and reconstructed phase maps are presented. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Phase, Common-path interferometer, Microscopy, Coherence.

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           quantitative phase measurement of biological cells, Proc SPIE-OSA, 10414(2017)104140H;
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           coherent multi-spectral light source, Lasers Physics Letter, 16(2019)025601;
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           source, Opt Lett, 41(2016 )1554-1557.
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             digital holographic interference microscope, J Biomed Opt, 22(2017)126001;


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 867-875

Generation of Stokes vortices in three, four and six circularly polarized beam interference

Sushanta Kumar Pal, Sarvesh Bansal and P Senthilkumaran
Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


In this article we have shown generation of Stokes fields vortices from the interference of three, four, and six polarization engineered circularly polarized vector beams. In addition to this, the interference method is extended to phase and polarization engineered six circularly polarized beams for realizing two interesting lattice fields embedded with all three Stokes vortices simultaneously. We believe that such polarization lattice fields may bring up novel concept of structured polarization illumination methods in super resolution microscopy.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Interference, Polarization, Optical Vortices, Polarization Singularity.

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Generation of Stokes vortices in three, four and six circularly polarized beam interference.pdf
Sushanta Kumar Pal, Sarvesh Bansal and P Senthilkumaran


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 877-889

Guided wave photonics for light sources, sensors and passive components at mid-IR

Babita Bakshi (nee Kumari)1, Ajanta Barh2, Somnath Ghosh3Ravendra K Varshney1 and Bishnu P Pal4

1Department of Physic, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Dehli-110 016 India

2Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland

3Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur-342 037 Rajasthan, India

4Mahindra École Centrale, Department of Physics, Hyderabad-500,043, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his contributions to Optics & Photonics


Guided wave photonics has emerged as a versatile mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelength platform and option for realising light sources, sensors and components in the technologically important wavelength window of 2-25 μm. Portions of this spectral band represent molecular fingerprint regimes of certain molecules’ characteristic signature absorption wavelengths, which find extensive applications in pollution detection and bio-chemical-medical research. Mid-IR waveband is also attractive for defense, homeland security, sensing of noxious gases, astronomy, spectroscopy, LIDAR, optical tomography, etc. In this review paper, we present our own research in recent years in the context of highlighting role of guided wave photonics for realizing light sources, sensors, and polarization components for use at mid-IR spectral domain.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical waveguides, Optical fibers, Nonlinear optics, Four wave mixing, Silicon photonics sensors and components

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      translation, Laser Phys. 24(2014)115401 (7 pages);
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23. Kumari B, Varshney R K, Pal B P, Design of chip-scale silicon slot waveguide for sub-ppm detection of N2O gas at mid-IR band, Sensors and Actuators B, 

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      confinement limit, Nature Photon, 1(2007)57-60.
27. Kumari B, Varshney R K, Pal B P, Design of a silicon-on-calcium-fluoride-based ultra-compact and highly efficient polarization splitter for the mid-IR, Opt 

      Eng, 58(2019)037102, 9 pages; doi: 10.1117/1.OE.58.3.037102
28. Zhang H, Huang Y, Das S, Li C, Yu M, Lo P G Q, Hong M, Thong J, Polarization splitter using horizontal slot waveguide, Opt Exp, 21(2013)3363-3368.
29. Kumari B, Varshney R K, Pal B P, Design of a silicon-on-calcium-fluoride-based compact and efficient polarization rotator for the mid-IR, OSA Continuum 

30. Nedeljkovic M, Khokhar A Z, Hu Y, Chen X, Penades J S, Stankovic S, Chong H M H, Thomson D J, Gardes F Y, Reed G T, Mashanovich G Z,Silicon 

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Guided wave photonics for light sources, sensors and passive components at mid-IR.pdf
Babita Bakshi (nee Kumari), Ajanta Barh, Somnath Ghosh, Ravendra K Varshney and Bishnu P Pal


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 891-898

Trends in micro-optics and nanophotonics technology

Amitava Ghosh, Amit K Agarwal and M P Singh
Instruments R & D Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun-248 008, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Micro-optics and nanophotonics cover areas of refractive and diffractive micro-optics, metamaterials, photonic crystals, and silicon photonics. Processes have been developed for the fabrication of micro-optical elements like microlens arrays, computer generated holograms and diffractive lenses. Applications based on micro-optics like compact and lightweight cameras, wavefront sensors, and aspheric optics testing using diffractive null elements are being targeted. In collaboration with various leading academic research groups in the country, futuristic applications that use nanostructures based on metamaterials, photonic crystals and silicon photonics are being identified. This paper will cover major initiatives taken by IRDE (India) in the area of micro-optics and nanophotonics technologies and their defense applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Micro-optics, Nano photonics, Metamaterials, Photonic crystals

Refs : 34

Trends in micro-optics and nanophotonics technology.pdf
Amitava Ghosh, Amit K Agarwal and M P Singh


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 899-905

Broadband infrared emissivity engineering in optically transparent metamaterials

by regulation of electromagnetic resonances

Nitish Kumar Gupta1, Harshawardhan Wanare1,2 and S Anantha Ramakrishna2
1Centre for Lasers and Photonics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208 016, India
2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208 016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


We present designs of optically transparent metamaterial structures with customizable emissivity response across the technologically important Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) window. The proposed designs have explicitly been conceived in a manner that separates the micro-structuring and thin film deposition steps leading to substantial fabrication process simplification, making them suitable for mass production over large areas. These emissivity engineered structures may be employed for digital spatial modulation of inherent thermal radiation from an object, thereby making them useful in encoding information for security applications. Furthermore, based on the finite element simulations, we have characterized the electromagnetic resonances of the structure and briefly explained the underlying physical mechanisms for the band-selective absorptivity. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Emissivity, Metamaterial, Optical Transparency, Resonance.

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           applications, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 50(2017)1-7.
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Broadband infrared emissivity engineering in optically transparent metamaterials by regulation of electromagnetic resonances.pdf
Nitish Kumar Gupta, Harshawardhan Wanare and S Anantha Ramakrishna


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 907-919

Degree of polarization of a spectral electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model

beam passing through 2-f and 4-f lens systems

Rajneesh Joshi and Bhaskar Kanseri*
Experimental Quantum Interferometry and Polarization (EQUIP), Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Spectral electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (SEGSM) beam is a generalization of Gaussian Schell-model beam having parameters with spectral dependence, which offers a basic classical model for random electromagnetic wide-sense statistically stationary beam-like fields. We study degree of polarization (DOP) of a SEGSM beam passing through 2-f and 4-f lens systems. It is observed that for a 2-f lens system, the spectral DOP at the back focal plane of the lens changes with respect to the transverse position from the optic axis, and the spectral parameters of the beam. For a 4-f lens system, the spectral DOP at the back focal plane is independent of the transverse position of the beam, whereas it depends on the beam parameters such as mean value of rms beam-width, rms width of correlation function, and size of aperture placed at the Fourier plane of the lens system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Schell-model beam,Vector field,Coherence,Polarization.
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Degree of polarization of a spectral electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model....pdf
Rajneesh Joshi and Bhaskar Kanseri


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 921-928


Role of speckle grains in the information optics

R K Singh
Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi- 221 005, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Role of speckle grain in the information optics is discussed and an approach to recover the object from the speckle grain is described. Possible uses of the different correlations of the speckle patterns and their applications in the imaging are highlighted. It is demonstrated that under suitable condition, it is possible to recover the object from a speckle pattern. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Wave propagation, Random scattering, Laser speckle, Information Optics, Correlation optics

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    29.  Singh R K, Vinu R V, Sharma A, Recovery of complex valued objects from two-point intensity correlation measurement, Appl Phys Lett,

    30.  Somkuwar A S, Das B, Vinu R V, Park Y K, Singh R K, Holographic imaging through a scattering layer using speckle interferometry, J Opt Soc Am A,

    31.  Singh R K, Vyas S, Miyamoto Y, Lensless Fourier transform holography for coherence waves, J Opt, 19(2017)115705;
    32.  Singh D, Singh R K, Lensless Stokes holography with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss approach, Opt Express, 26(2018)10801-10812.
    33.  Takeda M, Wang W, Naik D N, Singh R K, Spatial statistical optics and spatial correlation holography: a review Opt Rev, 21(2014)849-861.
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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 929-940

Imaging based system for performing total leukocyte count in minute volumes of human blood

Bhargab Das1,*, Swati Bansal1, Girish C Mohanta2, Sanjit K Debnath3, Raj Kumar3 and Prateek Bhatia4
1Advanced Materials and Sensors Division, CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh-160 030, India
2Ubiquitous Analytical Techniques Division, CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh-160 030, India
3Optical Devices & Systems Division, CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh-160 030, India
4Advanced Pediatrics Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh-160 012, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Total leukocyte (white blood cells, WBCs) count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals assisting with diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases. Counting of WBCs can be performed either manually using conventional light microscopes or automatically using specialized equipment. Manual methods are inexpensive, but they are more laborious and time consuming as well as being error-prone because of small field-of-view of conventional light microscopes. Automatic techniques provide statistically more accurate results but the required equipment and other resources are very expensive and simultaneously require large volumes of blood. As a result, the current research efforts are being carried out towards the development of portable easy to use blood cell count technologies. In an effort towards this direction, we present here our recent experimental results towards the realization of a portable, low-cost, image based system for performing total leukocyte count in minute volumes of human blood. Both interferometric and non-interferometric methods are explored for imaging of stained and unstained blood smear samples. Mach-Zehnder based digital holographic configuration is studied using coherent light source. In addition, in order to get rid of speckle noise, we also explored a white light interferometer based on diffraction phase microscopy technique. Finally, a non-interferometric concept implemented with selective fluorescent tagging of WBCs is realized. This fluorescence imaging based concept together with automated image processing and analysis provides a powerful technique for distinguishing WBCs and RBCs, as well as counting the number of WBCs in the field of view. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Total leukocyte count, White blood cells, Digital holography, Interferometry, White-light interferometry, Fluorescence imaging, Acridine orange, Image processing, Cell counting.
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           cell differential measurements at the point of care, Biomed Opt Express, 6 (2015)4433-4446.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 941-946

Noise sensitivity of the fast two-step fractional fringe detection method in digital holography

Kedar Khare
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas, New Delhi- 110 016, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Accurate fractional fringe detection is an important problem in off-axis digital holography. Unless the carrier frequency peak in 2D Fourier transform of a recorded digital hologram is detected to sub-pixel accuracy, the reconstructed phase shows artifacts in the form of ramp phase background. Recently, we have presented a fast and robust two-step approach for fractional fringe detection that uses a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operation followed by local Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) operation. In this work, we present sensitivity of this two-step fractional fringe detection method to Poisson noise. The aim of this analysis is to establish the detectability of fractional fringe shift for a given light level or for noise level associated with a realistic array sensor. It is observed that the two-step procedure is robust and provides accurate estimate of fractional fringe shift down to light level of 100 photon counts on average per pixel. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fractional fringe detection, Interferometry, Digital holograhy.

    1.    Takeda M, Ina H, Kobayashi S, Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer based topography and interferometry, J Opt Soc Am

    2.    Du Y, Feng G, Li H, Accurate carrier-removal technique based on zero padding in Fourier transform method for carrier interferogram analysis, Optik,

    3.    Singh M, Khare K, Accurate efficient carrier estimation for single-shot digital holographic imaging, Opt Lett, 41(2016)4871-4874.
    4.    Lahrberg M, Singh M, Khare K, Ahluwalia B, Accurate estimation of the illumination pattern’s orientation and wavelength in sinusoidal structured

           illumination microscopy, Appl Opt, 57(2018)1019-1025.
    5.    Guizar-Sicairos M, Thurman S, Fienup J R, Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms, Opt Lett, 33(2008) 156-158.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 947-960

Asymmetric color image encryption mechanism using equal modulus
and random decomposition in hybrid transform domain

Pankaj Rakheja1, Phool Singh2, A K Yadav3* and Akhil Arora1
1Department of EECE, The North Cap University, Gurugram- 122 017, India
2Department of Mathematics (SOET),Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh-609 602, India
3Department of Mathematics, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram- 122 413, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

This paper presents a color image encryption mechanism utilizing equal modulus decomposition and random decomposition in hybrid transform domain. A 4D hyperchaotic system is employed for pixel swap over procedure. Its initial conditions and parameters broaden the key space. Kekre, Walsh and fractional Fourier transforms are used in generation of hybrid transform. The proposed encryption mechanism which possesses non-linear properties has higher resistance to brute force attacks owing to extended key space. Numerical simulations have been performed to validate and verify the performance of the proposed mechanism. The results obtained clearly demonstrate robustness of the proposed mechanism to noise attack and special attack. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Color image encryption; Asymmetric cryptosystem; Equal modulus decomposition; Random modulus decomposition

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 961-981

Plasmonic nanowire coupled to zero-dimensional nanostructures: A brief review

Sunny Tiwari1, Chetna Taneja1 and G V Pavan Kumar1,2*
1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune-411 008, India
2Center for Energy Science, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune-411 008, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Metal nanowires and nanoparticles that facilitate surface plasmons are of contemporary interest in nanophotonics, thermoplasmonics and optoelectronics. They facilitate not only subwavelength light propagation and localization capabilities, but also provide an excellent platform for opto-thermal effects confined to volumes down to the nanoscale. This brief review article aims to provide an overview of a specific nanophotonic geometry: a plasmonic nanowire coupled to a zero-dimensional nanostructure. We discuss the methods to prepare such nano-architectures and review some interesting nanophotonic applications that arise out of it. We conclude with a discussion on some emerging research directions that can be facilitated by employing the coupled nanostructures. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nanowire-nanoparticle junction, Surface plasmon polaritons, Surface enhanced Raman scattering, Remote excitation, Fourier plane imaging.

Total Refs : 98


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 983-988


Phase reconstruction using compressive parallel phase shift digital
holography with Haar wavelet sparsification

Prakash Ramachandran1 and Anith Nelleri2
1Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore-632 014, Tamilnadu, India
2Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Chennai, 600 127, Tamilnadu, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Parallel phase shift digital holography (PPSDH) is a single exposure linear holographic scheme and much suitable for 3D imaging of moving specimens. The linearity of this scheme fits well in to the compressive sensing (CS) frame work. In this paper, we have proposed a method in which the compressive sensing is applied to a two-step parallel phase shift digital holography with Haar wavelet sparsification. A superior phase reconstruction was obtained by this method since the CS approach compensates the noise in the retrieved Fresnel field computed from PPSDH holograms that aroused due to the loss of pixels and approximations involved in parallel phase shift digital holography scheme. The robustness of this CS based method was demonstrated by performing the reconstruction from holograms in which only 50% of the detected Fresnel field sample points were retained. Three methods have been compared such as conventional PPSDH, CS based PPSDH and CS-PPSDH with Haar wavelet sparsified object field. The results show that wavelet sparsified CS-PPSDH is superior to other methods in quantitative phase information reconstruction. The results are presented from numerical experiments to demonstrate the concept. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Digital holography, Phase reconstruction, Compressive sensing, Parallel phase shift digital holography, Sparsity, Wavelet sparsification.

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Phase reconstruction using compressive parallel phase shift digital holography with Haar wavelet sparsification.pdf
Prakash Ramachandran and Anith Nelleri


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 989-1013

Vectorial imaging techniques for insights into the principles of optical tweezers

Sirshendu Dinda and Debabrata Goswami
Department of Chemistry
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur-208 016, India.

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics 


Optical tweezers work on the principle that microscopic particles may be immobilized by the application of an intense photon flux, which may be attained under tight focusing conditions. To elucidate the behaviour and mechanism of this tweezing action, herein we perform numerical studies and investigate the intensity distribution at the focusing spot under tight focusing conditions. With a high numerical aperture optical lens, the influence of the incident beam polarization on the intensity distribution of focusing spot is very significant. A linearly polarized incident beam induces an asymmetric focusing spot, which is elongated along the polarization direction of the incident beam. The incident beam profile influences the shape of the focusing spot. We show here how introducing an optical mask in front of the optical lens can induce many impressive results; e.g., incident beam modulated by an amplitude mask induces a sub-diffraction limit focusing spot which is relevant to further studies on optical tweezers. We also demonstrate the effects of considering interfaces of different numerical apertures in an optical setup. Thus, we report on the multiple aspects of light-matter interactions for high numerical aperture lens setups, wherein we show through simulations and experiments, the characteristics of such systems that are of use to the broader optics community. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Vectorial imaging, Intensity distribution patterns, Amplitude masks, Optical tweezers

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Vectorial imaging techniques for insights into the principles of optical tweezers.pdf
Sirshendu Dinda and Debabrata Goswami


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1027-1034

Consideration of freshness and taste of Japanese tomatoes - Comparison of laser biospeckle,

and different sensing technologies with human perception

Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan1,2, Yuya Tanaka2 and Hirofumi Kadono3
1SIT Research Lab Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu, Tokyo, Japan
2Depaerment of Food science and Nutrition, Toyo University, Itakura, Gunma, Japan
3Graduate School of Enviornment Science, Saitama University, Saitama city, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


There has been a growing interest in the application of non-invasive laser biospeckle activity in the assessment of agricultural products such as tomato, Indian fruits, apples and so on and compare with other physical measures such as acid and starch content. In this study, we have compared characteristics of tomatoes by optical sensing along with taste and smell measurements in addition to human taste perception. We have employed non-invasive optical method of speckle imaging, smell and taste sensor devices for evaluation of freshness of tomatoes stored at room temperature. Tomatoes purchased from a local supermarket were used for measurements. Movies of biospeckle images acquired with a CMOS camera (1024 × 280 pixels) binned to 240 × 320 pixels sampled at the rate of 15 fps were obtained over a period of 14 sec. Calculating cross-correlation coefficient of biospeckle images at different times with that at time 0 and further quantifying the correlation coefficient (r) at 14th sec as a parameter, it has been found that correlation coefficient decreased as a function of days matching the expectations due to reduction in the cellular activity within the tomato sample due to aging of the sample. We also conducted smell and taste measurements by electronic nose and lipid based taste sensor in addition to human sensing evaluations both of which revealed that the older tomatoes (15 days old) to be tasting better. Comparison of freshness and taste revealed that freshness and taste quality do not always agree. Biospeckle can detect deterioration as early as third day. At the same time, both taste measurement and human perception results suggest for a longer storage to be delicious. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biospeckle, Tomato, Perception, Freshness, Scattering

Consideration of freshness and taste of Japanese tomatoes....pdf
Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan, Yuya Tanaka and Hirofumi Kadono


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1035-1048

Optical metrology via the photorefractive effect

Arun Anand1 and C S Narayanamurthy2
1Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M S University of Baroda, Kalabhavan P. B. No 51, Vadodara – 390 001, India
2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology(IIST) Valiamala (PO), Thiruvananthapuram 695 547, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

By exploiting the two wave mixing phenomena in crystals of sillienite family like Bi12SiO20 (Bismuth Silicon Oxide) and Bi12TiO20 (Bismuth Titanium Oxide) optical metrological applications like stress and strain measurements and testing of optical elements can be carried out. In this paper, we report physics of two wave mixing phenomena in photorefractive crystals of sillienite family like BSO, BTO and their applications to optical metrology in detail. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Photorefractive effect, Two wave mixing, Dynamic holography, Optical metrology

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Optical metrology via the photorefractive effect.pdf
Arun Anand and C S Narayanamurthy


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1091-1102

Multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength optical interferometries

Rajpal S Sirohi
Department of Physics, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, AL 35802, USA
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Optical interferometry is perhaps the oldest precision measurement technique that has evolved in its various variants due to the developments in optical sources and detector systems, and varied applications. Some of the variants are developed to enhance the accuracy of measurement and also the ease of measurement. This paper discusses the theory of multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength interferometries. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Two-beam Interferometry, Multi-beam Interferometry, Multi-wavelength Interferometry

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Multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength optical interferometries.pdf
Rajpal S Sirohi


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1127-1134

Surface plasmons resonance based refractive index sensors using bimetallic configurations

Ashish Bijalwan and Vipul Rastogi
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


In this paper bimetallic grating-based sensors using combinations of different metals (Au, Ag and Al) have been designed for refractive index sensing and Haemoglobin sensing. Au, being more chemically stable metal, is commonly used as SPR active metal, though it does not provide narrower SPR curve. Whereas, Al can provide narrower SPR curve but is chemically instable. Bimetallic grating based refractive index sensors exhibit narrower SPR curves and better-Quality Factors compared to conventional Au-grating based sensors. Numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis confirm that the FWHM of conventional Au-grating based sensors could be reduced by replacing the Au film with Ag or Al. The issue of the oxidation of Al is also discussed in this study. As a solution, we propose two different structures (i) Au-grating over Au coated Al film and (ii) Au-Al2O3-grating over Al film.The proposed sensors are stable and can offer the Quality Factor of more than 245 RIU-1. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Haemoglobin sensing, Au-grating, Quality Factor

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           concentration, Appl Opt, 45(2006)2838-2842.


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1135-1148


Technology development for precision optics fabrication

Amitava Ghosh and Kamal K Pant
Instruments R & D Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun-248 008, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Fabrication of conventional optics is an old age technology primarily includes flat and spherical surfaces. Usage of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces providesmore degree of freedom to an optical designer to control aberrations and improving the performance of the imaging system. Development of CNC based manufacturing technologies has given the opportunity to fabricate complex aspheric and non-rotationally symmetric freeform surfaces. An overview of the manufacturing trends for precision optics is presented with technological transformation from conventional to modern CNC based techniques those are suitable for complex aspheric and freeform fabrication along with suitable metrology feedback. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Aspheric and freeform optics, CNC optical manufacturing, Optical tower, SHS based freeform metrology.

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          Field-of-view limit, J Soc Inf Display, 16(2008)1089-1098.
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          precessions process to smoothing ground aspheres and producing freeform parts, Proc SPIE 5869, Optical Manufacturing and Testing VI, 58690E (24 August

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   24.  Khan G, Bichra M, Grewe A, Sabitov N,  Sabitov N, Mantel K, Harder I, Berger A, Lindlein N, Sinzinger S, Metrology of freeform optics using diffractive

          null elements in Shack-Hartmann sensor, Conference: Proc  EOSMOC & EOSOF Conference 2013.
   25.  Burada D R, Pant K K, Mishra V, M Bichra M, Development of a metrology technique suitable for in situ measurement and corrective manufacturing of

          freeform optics,  Adv Opt Technol, 8(2019)203-215.
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Technology development for precision optics fabrication.pdf
Amitava Ghosh and Kamal K Pant


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1149-1160

Investigations of magnetic resonances with modulated laser excitation in the atomic

medium for magnetometry applications

Gour S Pati and Renu Tripathi*
Division of Physics, Engineering Mathematics & Computer Science (PEMaCS),
Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, USA

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

We have investigated magnetic resonances produced by resonant laser excitation of the atomic medium with modulated light. Magnetic resonances in two different atomic media are studied. First, we have studied magnetic resonances using laser excitation of D1 transition in a pure isotope rubidium cell. We explain the origin of magnetic resonances using two-photon Lambda transitions, and simulate magnetic resonances using a theoretical model based on the density-matrix equations. Second, we have studied magnetic resonances in fluorescence from a sodium cell. This study is intended for performing remote magnetometry experiments with mesospheric sodium atoms. We have also demonstrated a new correlation technique, which can be performed over a wide frequency range for measuring an unknown magnetic field in magnetometry. Present studies are aimed towards improving our understanding of magnetic resonances for magnetometry applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nonlinear magneto-optic rotation (NMOR), Alkali Atoms, Magnetometry

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Investigations of magnetic resonances with modulated laser excitation in the atomic medium for magnetometry applications.pdf
Gour S Pati and Renu Tripathi


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1163-1173

Light Scattering by Turbid Media

M R Shenoy* and Kalpak Gupta
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110 016

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Study of scattered light has emerged as an important and practical method of analysing a turbid medium in a fast and non-invasive manner. From light scattering measurements, the scattering parameters of the turbid medium can be estimated, which in turn depend on the intrinsic properties of the scatterers. Measurements of multiple physical quantities such as transmitted light, reflected light and scattered light at different angles lead to a better estimation of the scattering parameters. Using the scattering theory and simulations such as Monte-Carlo technique, in conjunction with experiments, leads to substantial reduction in the number of measurements required, and help in optimizing efficient and compact devices for practical use. There is also scope for studies on mixtures of turbid media, and the effect of various changes in the ambience, in specific applications. In this paper, we first review the basics of light scattering from turbid media, and briefly discuss the methodologies to simulate and characterize a turbid medium. We then detail some of our recent work on estimation of the scattering parameters of a turbid medium, including the use of fiber-optic probes as turbidity sensors, with potential applications in remote sensing and telemetry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Light scattering, Turbid media, Optical properties, Monte-Carlo simulation

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Light Scattering by Turbid Media.pdf
M R Shenoy and Kalpak Gupta


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1175-1185

Variational method for the modes of optical fibers

Anurag Sharma
Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
 New Delhi – 110 016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Variational method has been used for modal analysis of single mode optical fibers for over 40 years and it continues to play an important role in such analysis. In this paper, we look at some of these analyses and discuss some of the recent advances in this direction. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Single Mode Fibers, Variational Method, Microstructured Fibers
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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1187-1196

Optical and photoluminescence properties of Ca and Cd doped spin coated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films

Anchal Srivastava

Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Hexagonal wurtzite nanocrystalline calcium/cadmium doped zinc oxide thin films on glass substrates have been obtained by sol gel spin coating method. Calcium doping enhances, whereas cadmium doping reduces the optical band gap of ZnO thin films. Thus by suitable choice of dopant band gap tuning of ZnO over a considerable range can be obtained. Molarity of the precursor solution plays an important role in achieving   photoluminescence. Ca doping increases defect emission, whereas Cd doping increases UV emission manifold. Cd doped ZnO films are found to possess good photoswitching properties. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Doped-ZnO, Calcium, Cadmium, Sol-gel spin coating, Photoluminescence, Photoswitching

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 1197-1204

Understanding dynamic beam shaping using liquid crystal spatial light modulator based binary holograms

Karuna Sindhu Malik, Nagendra Kumar, Akanshu Chauhan,
Nedup Sherpa and Bosanta R Boruah

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039, Assam, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


In this paper, we describe wavefront shaping of a laser beam using a computer generated holography technique. We use liquid crystal spatial light modulator as a dynamic amplitude modulating device to implement binary holograms, which diffract an incident laser beam into a number of orders. The phase profiles of the diffracted beams have direct dependence on the description of the binary hologram, which on the other hand can be controlled in real time via a computer interface. Along with a brief theoretical background we present a proof-of-principle experiment to understand the working of binary hologram based beam shaping mechanism © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Beam shaping, Liquid crystal spatial modulator, Binary hologram,  Phase profile


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Understanding dynamic beam shaping using liquid crystal spatial light modulator based binary holograms.pdf
Karuna Sindhu Malik, Nagendra Kumar, Akanshu Chauhan, Nedup Sherpa and Bosanta R Boruah



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