An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

Title Vol 28 Nos 10-12(2019)


SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 28, Nos 10-12, October-December, 2019


Journal of Physics


Volume 28, Nos 10-12, October-December 2019


A Special Issue Dedicated


Prof Kehar Singh

Formerly Professor of Physics at IIT Delhi

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

About Professor Kehar Singh

Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at  Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at  British Scientific and Industrial Research Association Ealing , Queen’s Univ. Belfast , and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and during the period 1996-1999 served as Head of Physics Deptt. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec. 2002. Until June 30, 2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research.

Prof Kehar Singh

Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information security and Nanophotonics (Photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, and plasmonics). Prof. Singh is also Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He is a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. Since  May 2015, he has been working as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA). 
Prof. Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having crossed the number of 960 citations.
Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph.D. theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Prof. Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy key positions in India and abroad.
Professor Kehar Singh was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honoured him with the ‘OSI Award’. He was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007,and Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi in 2011.Prof.Singh was also honored in 2011,under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
Prof.Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering, in addition to being  a Fellow of the Optical Society of India and the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President from 1988 to 1991. He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory  member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010 ), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Engg. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006). Currently he serves as an Associate Editor of Optics Express (2015----todate), Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India, 1974 – to date), Asian J. Phys. (1992 – to date). and  Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ). He also served as an editorial board member of the Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. (CSIR, 1986 – 88).
Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995.
Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ held in Dehradun, India in Dec. 1998, Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics  held in December 2005 at Dehradun, and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar, during the period Nov. 23-26, 2017, and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi during the period Dec. 12-15,2018. Prof Singh is also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the upcoming International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics to be held at IRDE Dehradun during the period Oct.19-22,2019.
Professor Singh has  edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J. Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the National Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurgaon. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering College. Kurukshetra and served on the ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities. He also served as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).

About the Guest Editor
Rajpal S. Sirohi is currently serving in the Physics Department, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, Alabama USA. Prior to this (2013-2016), he was the Chair Professor, Physics Department, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam, India. He was Distinguished Scholar (2011-2013) in the Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. During 2000-2011, he had been deeply engaged in academic administration and research as Director, IIT Delhi (Dec. 2000-April 2005); Vice-Chancellor, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (April 2005-Sept. 2007); Vice-Chancellor, Shobhit University, Meerut (Oct.2007-March 2008); Vice-Chancellor, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur (March 2008-Oct.2009) and Vice-Chancellor, Invertis University, Bareilly (Jan 2011-Oct.2011).

R S Sirohi

He was also Visitor to Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (June 2012- June 2013). Prof. Sirohi did his Masters in Physics in 1964 from Agra University, and Post M.Sc. in Applied Optics and Ph. D. in Physics both from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi in 1965 and 1970, respectively. Prof. Sirohi was Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department at Indian Institute of Technology Madras during 1971-1979. He became Professor in the Physics Department of the same Institute in 1979. He superannuated in April 2005 from IIT Delhi.
Prof. Sirohi worked in Germany as a Humboldt Fellow at PTB, Braunschweig, and as a Humboldt Awardee at Oldenburg University. He was a Senior Research Associate at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, and Associate Professor, and Distinguished Scholar at Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana. He was ICTP (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste Italy) Consultant to Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia and ICTP Visiting Scientist to the University of Namibia. He was Visiting Professor at the National University of Singapore and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Prof. Sirohi is Fellow of several important academies/ societies in India and abroad including the Indian National Academy of Engineering; National Academy of Sciences India; Optical Society of America; Optical Society of India; SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering); Instrument Society of India and honorary fellow of ISTE and Metrology Society of India. He is member of several other scientific societies, and founding member of India Laser Association. Prof. Sirohi was also the Chair for SPIE-INDIA Chapter, which he established with co-operation from SPIE in 1995 at IIT Madras. He was invited as JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Fellow and JITA Fellow to Japan. He was a member of the Education Committee of SPIE.
Prof. Sirohi has received the following awards from various organizations:
Humboldt Research Award (1995) by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany; Galileo Galilei Award of International Commission for Optics (1995); Amita De Memorial Award of the Optical Society of India (1998); 13th Khwarizmi International Award, IROST (Iranian Research Organisation for Science and Technology (2000); Albert Einstein Silver Medal, UNESCO (2000); Dr. YT Thathachari Prestigious Award for Science by Thathachari Foundation, Mysore (2001); Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Award in Engineering & Technology for 2000 (awarded in 2002) by MP Council of Science and Technology; NRDC Technology Invention Award on May 11, 2003; Sir CV Raman Award: Physical Sciences for 2002 by UGC (University Grants Commission); Padma Shri, a national Civilian Award (2004); Sir CV Raman Birth Centenary Award (2005) by Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata; Holo-Knight (2005), inducted into Order of Holo- Knights during the International Conference-Fringe 05-held at Stuttgart, Germany; Centenarian Seva Ratna Award (2004) by The Centenarian Trust, Chennai; Instrument Society of India Award (2007); Gabor Award (2009) by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) USA; UGC National Hari OM Ashram Trust Award - Homi J. Bhabha Award for Applied Sciences (2005) by UGC; Distinguished Alumni Award (2013) by Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Vikram Award 2014 by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) USA.
Prof. Sirohi was the President of the Optical Society of India during 1994-1996. He was also the President of Instrument Society of India for three terms (2003-06, 2007-09, 2010-12). He was on the International Advisory Board of the Journal of Modern Optics, UK and on the editorial Boards of the Journal of Optics (India), Optik, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. He was Guest Editor to the Journals “Optics and Lasers in Engineering” and “Optical Engineering”. He was Associate Editor of the International Journal “Optical Engineering”, USA during (1999-Aug.2013), and currently is its Senior Editor. He is the Series Editor of the Series on ‘Advances in Optics, Photonics and Optoelectronics’ published by Institute of Physics Publishing, UK. He is also on the Editorial Board of Asian Journal of Physics.
Prof. Sirohi has 456 papers to his credit with 244 published in national and international journals, 67 papers in Proceedings of the conferences and 145 presented in conferences.He has authored/co-authored/edited thirteen books including five milestones for SPIE. He was Principal Coordinator for 26 projects sponsored by Government Funding Agencies and Industries, has supervised 25 Ph.D. theses, 7 M.S. theses and numerous B.Tech., M.Sc. and M.Tech. theses.
Prof. Sirohi’s research areas are Optical Metrology, Optical Instrumentation, Laser Instrumentation, Holography and Speckle Phenomenon.

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 00-00

Multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength optical interferometries

Rajpal S Sirohi

Department of Physics

Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, AL 35802, USA


Optical interferometry is perhaps the oldest precision measurement technique that has evolved in its various variants due to the developments in optical sources and detector systems, and varied applications. Some of the variants are developed to enhance the accuracy of measurement and also the ease of measurement. This paper discusses the theory of multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength interferometries. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Two-beam Interferometry, Multi-beam Interferometry, Multi-wavelength Interferometry

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Multi-pass, multi-beam and multi-wavelength optical interferometries.pdf
Rajpal S Sirohi


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 777-786

Transport of intensity equation for phase imaging: A review

Alok K Gupta and Naveen K Nishchal
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna,
Bihta, Patna-801 106, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics

Quantitative phase imaging has attracted widespread attention of the research community because of its extensive applications in metrology and biological sciences. The techniques are broadly divided into interferometric and non-interferometric categories. The transport of intensity equation (TIE) based phase imaging method comes under the non-interferometric category. The TIE has usual advantages over the interferometric techniques because of partial coherence illumination and direct phase recovery without any unwrapping complexity. However, it has some limitations also such as paraxial approximation, near Fresnel region diffraction, and knowledge of appropriate boundary conditions. This article reviews the difficulties and complexities while solving the TIE for accurate quantitative phase map. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Non-interferometric phase imaging, Transport of intensity equation, Quantitative phase imaging

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60. Schmalz J A, Gureyev T E, Paganin D M, Pavlov K M, Phase retrieval using radiation and matter-wave fields: Validity of Teague’s method for solution of the transport-of-intensity equation, Phys Rev A, 84(2011)023808;
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Transport of intensity equation for phase imaging: A review.pdf
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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 787-793

Performance analysis of an improved target detection technique based
on quadratic correlation filters for surveillance applications

Arun Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan
Instruments Research and Development Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun-248 008, India
This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his contributions to Optics & Photonics

An improved target detection method based on Quadratic Correlation Filters (QCF) is proposed for surveillance application to detect the target amid the clutter in visible imagery. The proposed improvement helps in reducing the false alarm rate thereby improving the performance. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is carried out on the frames of a video sequence by varying three parameters – target window size, variance check value, and positive filter threshold value. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Target detection, Recognition, Quadratic correlation filter, Variance, Target recognition performance analysis.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 877-889

Guided wave photonics for light sources, sensors and passive components at mid-IR

Babita Bakshi (nee Kumari)1, Ajanta Barh2, Somnath Ghosh3Ravendra K Varshney1 and Bishnu P Pal4

1Department of Physic, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Dehli-110 016 India

2Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland

3Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur-342 037 Rajasthan, India

4Mahindra École Centrale, Department of Physics, Hyderabad-500,043, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his contributions to Optics & Photonics


Guided wave photonics has emerged as a versatile mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelength platform and option for realising light sources, sensors and components in the technologically important wavelength window of 2-25 μm. Portions of this spectral band represent molecular fingerprint regimes of certain molecules’ characteristic signature absorption wavelengths, which find extensive applications in pollution detection and bio-chemical-medical research. Mid-IR waveband is also attractive for defense, homeland security, sensing of noxious gases, astronomy, spectroscopy, LIDAR, optical tomography, etc. In this review paper, we present our own research in recent years in the context of highlighting role of guided wave photonics for realizing light sources, sensors, and polarization components for use at mid-IR spectral domain.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical waveguides, Optical fibers, Nonlinear optics, Four wave mixing, Silicon photonics sensors and components

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Guided wave photonics for light sources, sensors and passive components at mid-IR.pdf
Babita Bakshi (nee Kumari), Ajanta Barh, Somnath Ghosh, Ravendra K Varshney and Bishnu P Pal


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                   Vol. 28 Nos 10-12, 2019, 891-898

Trends in micro-optics and nanophotonics technology

Amitava Ghosh, Amit K Agarwal and M P Singh
Instruments R & D Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun-248 008, India

This article is dedicated to Prof Kehar Singh for his significant contributions to Optics and Photonics


Micro-optics and nanophotonics cover areas of refractive and diffractive micro-optics, metamaterials, photonic crystals, and silicon photonics. Processes have been developed for the fabrication of micro-optical elements like microlens arrays, computer generated holograms and diffractive lenses. Applications based on micro-optics like compact and lightweight cameras, wavefront sensors, and aspheric optics testing using diffractive null elements are being targeted. In collaboration with various leading academic research groups in the country, futuristic applications that use nanostructures based on metamaterials, photonic crystals and silicon photonics are being identified. This paper will cover major initiatives taken by IRDE (India) in the area of micro-optics and nanophotonics technologies and their defense applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Micro-optics, Nano photonics, Metamaterials, Photonic crystals

Refs : 34

Trends in micro-optics and nanophotonics technology.pdf
Amitava Ghosh, Amit K Agarwal and M P Singh



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