An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

AJP Vol 25 No 1, 2016


SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 25, No 1, January 2016

25th Anniversary Year of AJP-2016

On the occasion of the 25th Anniversary Year of the Asian Journal of Physics, I like to congratulate the founder and chief-editor of this journal, Professor Vinod K. Rastogi and his editorial team, for a great and tireless job he/theyperformed over so many years to bring this journal to a high standard. I still remember the year 1991, when Vinod asked me to contribute with a paper to the first issue of his newly founded journal, which then appeared in 1992. Mathias Ganz, one of my former PhD students, had just finished  work on electronic Raman scattering from isotopically pure bromine (79Br and 81Br) atomsand we had been  proud to resolve the hyperfine structure in the electronic Raman spectrum of these halogen atoms. We were happy to submit this work to this new journal and Vinod had been so kind to place it on page one of the first issue. We are pleasedseeing this paper reprinted again in the Anniversary Issue.

It gives me great pleasure to see how the journal has meanwhile grown in quantity as well as in quality covering a broad range of physical aspects.  The editor-in-chief strengthened the journal by publishing so many Special Issues, each organized by well-known international scientists.  I am sure that the journal will keep the standard or even further develop. In this sense,  I wish most success for this journal.

Würzburg, 2015-11-09                                                                                                                                                                            Wolfgang Kiefer

On the occasion of the 25th anniversary Year of the Asian Journal of Physics, I should like to congratulate Professor Vinod K. Rastogi for taking the initiative to found this Journal. I met for the first time with Vinod during a Conference on the Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules in Madrid, Spain in 1997. I accepted his kind invitation to become an Editor of AJP. My first paper in AJP “Collective effects in liquid formamide studied by Raman spectroscopy” was published the following year in a special issue edited by Wolfgang Kiefer celebrating the seventieth anniversary of the discovery of the “Raman Effect”. I agree with Wolfgang Kiefer in his opening statement of Vol 25, No 1, January 2016 that Vinod and his editorial team has succeeded in bringing this journal to a high standard. Without insulting any members of the editorial board I think I can conclude that this mainly is caused by to the effort and enthusiasm of Vinod. During the years I have had not only a fruitful scientific collaboration with Vinod, but also from our visits to India my family and I have been met with warm hospitality. It is a pleasure and an honour for me that Vinod has asked me to write this short statement and I wish success in the future for this journal and its editor-in-chief.

Copenhagen January 5, 2016

Ole Faurskov Nielsen

Ole Faurskov Nielsen

Reproduced from Asian J Phys, Vol 1, 1992

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                                    Vol 1, No 1(1992)1-8

Hyperfine structure in the electronic Raman spectrum of 79Br and 81Br


M Ganz and W Kiefer

Institut fur Physikalische Chemie der Universitat Wuerzburg

Marcusstrasse 9-11, W-8700 Wurzburg, Fedral Republic of Germany


The electronic Raman transition of isotopically pure atomic bromine (79Br and 81Br) between the  42P3/2 and  42P1/2 states at 3685 cm-1 has been observed under high resolution with argon ion laser excitation. The same laser served to produce atomic bromine by photodissociation of isotopically pure 79Br2 and 81Br2. The hyperfine structure of the 42P1/2 ← 42P3/2 transition could be partially resolved. A theoretical simulation of the total Raman band, which consists of seven allowed F2 − F1 Raman transitions, shows good agreement with the observed spectra. It is further shown that, in both isotopic bromine atoms the electronic Raman scattering originates from the quadrupole component of the atomic scattering operator, similar to what has been observed by the authors in iodine atoms earlier.


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W Kiefer

Wolfgang Kiefer studied physics at LM-University of Munich. After his PhD in Physics he joined for two years the Chemistry Division of the National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada, for postdoctoral work and then returned to LMU Munich where he finished his habilitation in 1977. Shortly afterwardshe became Professor of Physics at the newly founded University of Bayreuth, Germany, where he stayed until 1985. From 1985 to 1988 he was Full Professor for Physics and Head of Institute for Experimental Physics at Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Austria. He finally accepted a chair in Physical Chemistry at University of Würzburg in 1988 where he stayed until his retirement in 2006. He was and still is member of several scientific journals,and he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy from 2000 to 2009. His research interests are mainly concerned with several aspects of Raman spectroscopy ranging from the development of new techniques, theories for resonance Raman spectroscopy, density functional theory, Raman/Mie scattering, non-linear Raman spectroscopies to surface enhanced Raman scattering. He has published 

more than 850 papers, among them 630 peer reviewed articles, 49 book articles, and he is co-author of 5 books.  He was Visiting and is Honorary Professor of several international Universities and he received an honorary doctoral degree from Babes-Bolyai-University Cluj-Napoca, Romania. He also received several international awards, among them the prestigious Pittsburgh Spectroscopy Award and the first Raman Lifetime Award provided by the International Conferences on Raman Spectroscopy. He is member and Honorary Member of many scientific Societies. After his retirement he set-up at his home his own Raman spectroscopy laboratory named Eisingen Laboratory for Applied Raman Spectroscopy(ELARS).

Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 01-33

The linear canonical transform and its discrete calculation

Liang Zhao, John J Healy, and John T Sheridan

School of Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering, IoE2 Lab, SFI-Strategic Research Cluster in Solar Energy Conversion,

College of Engineering and Architecture, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland

25th Anniversary Year


The linear canonical transform (LCT) is a powerful transform, which is of great importance in signal processing and paraxial optics. In this paper, the mathematical description, physical meaning, limitations, and properties of the LCT are discussed. In optics, the LCT can model a wide variety of coherent wave field propagations through paraxial optical systems. Therefore, in this paper paraxial optics, including both diffraction theory and geometric optics, is also summarized. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), which is a numerical approximation of the continuous Fourier transform, digital algorithms are employed to evaluate the continuous LCT. Following the example of the analysis of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the numerical calculation of the LCT is discussed. Two issues related to the discretization of the LCT are presented: (i) The spatial bandwidth, which is calculated by the Wigner distribution function (WDF); and (ii) Matrix decompositions and the corresponding fast algorithms of the DLCT. Finally, two key problems are summarized: (1) The sampling theorem for the general 2D-NS-LCT, and (2) How to maintain two important group properties during discretization: the unitary property and the additive property. Specially, it is shown that compared with the non-unitary discrete linear canonical transform (DLCT), the unitary DLCT can significantly improve the performance of the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) iterative phase retrieval algorithm. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Speckle metrology, Motion measurement, Optical correlator, Photorefractive crystals.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 35-44

Sampling the Fresnel diffraction integral in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems

Yang  Wu and  Damien  P  Kelly
Fachgebiet Optik-Design, Technische Universita¨tIlmenau, Ilmenau 98684, Germany.

25th Anniversary Year


The Fresnel transform is widely used in optics to calculate the free space propagation of paraxial fields. Due to a lack of analytical solutions a numerical treatment of the diffraction problem is often necessary. In this manuscript, we discuss the numerical approach by sampling the integral in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems. By sampling the input field, the replicas are inevitable, which reduce the accuracy of the results. For different coordinate systems, replicas effects are fundamentally different. At the end we calculate an example of the Fresnel transform in different coordinate system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fresnel transform, Paraxial fields, Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction.

Total Refs : 12


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 45-58

Temporal speckle correlations for optical alignment

Florian Schurig, and Damien P Kelly
Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologie, Macro-Nano, Fachgebiet Technische Optik, Technische Universität Ilmenau,
Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau, Germany

25th Anniversary Year


It is possible to use of 3D lateral and longitudinal static speckle fields to determine the lateral location of the optical axis in a system. In this manuscript we examine a variation of this idea where we use the 3D temporal correlation properties of multiple speckle fields to perform the same task. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted, experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions and we present some conclusions. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Speckle patterns, Multiple speckle fields, Optical wavelength, longitudinal speckle correlation

Total Refs : 10

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 59-64

Plasmonics: A new paradigm for information security

Areeba Fatima and Naveen K Nishchal

Department of Physics

Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna-801 118, India

(Celebrating 25th anniversary)


Due to electromagnetic interaction at the metal-dielectric interface, propagating surface waves are formed which are known as surface plasmons. Certain non-propagating excitations too are formed by appropriately illuminated metal nanoparticles which are known as localized surface plasmon resonance. These excitations exhibit special features and have thus, found their use in information security, its authentication and validation. This paper reviews the recent advancements made in the feld of information security using plasmonics. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Plasmonics; Encryption; Localized surface plasmon resonance; Surface plasmon polaritons.

Total Refs : 30

Plasmonics: A new paradigm for information security.pdf
Areeba Fatima and Naveen K Nishchal


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                            Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 71-78

A wave-front sensor based on phase retrieval algorithm


Huan Zhao and Yan Zhang

Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Lab for Metamaterials and Devices,

 and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100048, China


We propose a new algorithm for wave-front sensor based on the Gerchberg and Saxton algorithm. This method, in which we used the fast Fourier transform and angular spectrum theory for convenience, is faster and more robust. The special light modulator is used to introduce a strong phase modulation into the object field, which makes the system to be more compact and flexible. The simulation results show that our system can reconstruct the conventional wave-front distributions with a high accuracy. The sum-squared error is in an acceptable range, which illustrates that the algorithm is useful and can be developed to a wavefront sensor to reconstruct phase with high accuracy. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Algorithm, Wavefront, Fourier transform, Phase modulation


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                 Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 79-84

Holographic aerial projection system

PWM Tsang and Y-T Chow

Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


The pepper ghost effect is a classic technique to create the illusion of a floating object. Albeit its long history that can be traced back to the sixteenth century, the pepper ghost illusion has been widely adopted nowadays for generating special effects for indoor decorations, telepresence, and the entertainment industries. Although pepper ghost illusion is sometimes referred to as holographic projection, the floating image is actually planar with no depth or disparity information. To overcome this shortcoming, a holographic aerial projection system (HAPS) for displaying a floating 3-D image is proposed and reported in this paper. Briefly, a phase-only hologram of a three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphic model is generated numerically and displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The reconstructed image of the hologram is projected via a beam splitter to form a floating 3-D image. The optical setup of the HAPS is described, and optical reconstruction is illustrated to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.  © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Pepper ghost effect, Aerial projection systems, Holographic aerial projection system, Phase-only hologram,Sampled phase-only hologram (SPOH).


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                 Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 95-109

Effect of primary aberrations on tight focusing of second  order radially polarized beam

Maruthi M Brundavanam1 and Rakesh Kumar Singh2

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721 302, India

2Applied and Adaptive Optics Laboratory, Department of Physics

Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Trivandrum, 695547, Kerala, India

(Celebrating 25th Anniversary)


Effect of primary aberrations on tight focusing of second order radially polarized beam is investigated using vector diffraction theory. A detailed analysis on the effect of spherical aberration on the focal structure of the second order radially polarized beam is carried out and results are compared with the first order radially polarized beam. It is demonstrated that the optical cage structure of the second order beam is highly sensitive to spherical aberration in addition to the truncation parameter of the beam. Susceptibility of the optical cage structure to astigmatism and coma is also investigated. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Radially polarized beam, Tight focusing, Debye-Wolf integral, Longitudinal polarization, Optical cage structure.

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Effect of primary aberrations on tight focusing of second order radially polarized beam.pdf
Maruthi M Brundavanam and Rakesh Kumar Singh


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                 Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 111-118


3D face recognition by structured illumination and Fourier fringe analysis

Debesh Choudhury
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Neotia Institute of Technology, Management and Science
D. H. Road, Jhinga, PO - Amira, Sarisha, South 24 Parganas
Pin-743368, West Bengal, India

25th Anniversary Year


In this paper we present a brief review of our research on 3D face recognition using structured illumination and Fourier fringe analysis. A structured light pattern is projected on the human face. The projected pattern is distorted due to the 3D geometric shape of the face. The pattern projected 2D images of the face are captured and processed by a Fourier transform method. The phase differences due to the distortion of the projected patterns act as the spatial codes of the human faces. The computed phase maps of the 3D faces are used to synthesize 2D spatially coded face signature functions. The 2D spatially coded face signature functions due to different faces are digitally cross-correlated with that for the target face. The recognition of the target face is confirmed by a high correlation peak and rejection of the non-target faces are evidenced by a very low or no correlation peak. This method does not need to reconstruct the complete 3D shape of the face objects. The experimental results demonstrate an excellent verification of the method.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 3D face recognition, Biometric authentication, 3D shape sensing, 3D biometrics, object recognition, Shape recognition, Pattern recognition.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                               Vol. 25 No 1 (2016) 121-126

Two dimensional graphene derivatives supported isolated gold nanoparticles as an effcient SERS substrate

Shiju Abrahama,b, Matthias Königb, Shobhit Pandeyc, Sunil K Srivastavad,Bernd Walkenfortb and Anchal Srivastavaa

aDepartment of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India

bFaculty of Chemistry, University of Duisburg, 45141 Essen, Germany

cMetallurgical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology – (BHU), Varanasi-221 005

dDepartment of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur- 495 009, India

(Dedicated to Professor Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 75th birthday)


The present work accomplishes surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies using the combination of stable, diluted and isolated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of tailored size (~ 50 nm) and distribution on two dimensional carbon nanostructures (2D-CNS) i.e. graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Fabricated using a simple, quick and cost effective method, these SERS substrates have enough synergistic enhancement from each Au NPs and underlying CNS matrix with sensitivity enough to easily detect 10-6 molar concentrations of analyte, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Further, uniform distribution of Au NPs ensures great reproducibility showing potential for standardization in future. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Nanoparticles, Graphene oxide (GO), 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA)


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Two dimensional graphene derivatives supported isolated gold nanoparticles as an effcient SERS substrate.pdf
Shiju Abraham, Matthias König, Shobhit Pandey, Sunil K Srivastava, Bernd Walkenfort and Anchal Srivastava



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